American Pistols and Revolvers 240 Pages Published 1894 Author A Gould













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TnE   fir ‘t  edition   of  Modern .r\..1nerica.n  Pistols      and

Revolvers  ” wa   published in 188  .   At  that   time  there


”as but   little general   knowledge of  the  capabilities of the  pistol   or   the  revolver.   A  general  itnpression   pre­ Yailecl that   there  “-as  little or  no  accuracy  iu  the  arms, or  if  they  were  accurate, those  manipulating then1 skill­ fully  were  specially  gifted.   The   publication   of  the  first edition   sho,vecl   the   great  accuracy  antl    reliability  of certain  arms, and made it apparent that  to  become skillf ul in   manipulating  them   was   only  a  matter  of  practice. This  stimulated many  devotees  of shooting to attempt to acquire  a proficiency.     As a result, at  the  time of writing there   are   expert  pistol   and  revolver    shots   in   various sections  of the country; an d  as the shooting world  has no national confines, this statement may  be applied   to many parts  of  the  ‘Yorld.

The  expert amateur pistol  and   revolver   ·hots of  to-day are, in many instances, doing work  superior  to that  of professionals  a  few  years  ago.    To  son1e extent,  this is clue to improvements in arms and an11nunition, but chiefly to  the  kno,vledge that   the  arms  posse s  great   accuracy, are safe  to  shoot,  and  that  it is within   the  reach  of  any





one  with   normal   heal th    and    vision    to    become    a    fine marksman.

Pistol and  revolve1· shooting   has  grown   rapidly   in popularity as a sport   throu ghou t  the  world ; where  there was one expert pistol shot  a few  years  ago, there  are now many.     There  have been numerous styles  of anns  created and  modes  of shooting developed,  and  it has  seerned  to be  important  that   a  record   of  the  work   accomplished sin ce 1888  be  collected,  a<lclecl  to  that   before  presented, and   recorded – in  a  permanen t  forn1.    it  is  thought that the   matter    puLlishecl   in   this  v olun1e  will    show  the capabilities  of  pistols anclrevolvers, and  the  developrnent of  skill  in shooting  th em.

The  ob jects  of   the  author in   presenting  this  second editio n are as follo,vs:     To  demonstrate the  accuracy   of

1nodern   An1erican  pistols, revolvers,  and  an1n1unition       to


· date;  to  record   the   best   known   work   to  the  time  of publication;   to   point   out   the  propriety  of  classifying the  several  departments in   shooting  with   these   arn1s; to urge   practical  training  a1uong  th e  national guard   in America,  ·where revolver shooting, ‘vhich  should   be understood  by  all  officers, members   of  the  na val battal­ ions, cavalry  and  artillery, has, until  recently, been aln1ost

wholly  neglected.


A.  C. G.











I.    De,·elopment of American Pistols and RcYolve1·s             1,




CHAPTER        IL     American Single-Shot Pitol ”                                                   5


CHAPTER      III.    Th e Colt Re,ol\er                                                                      31


CHAPTER      IV.     American     Revol,ers.  – Smith      &      ‘Vesson ‘s


Productions                                                                           51


CHAPTElt         V.     :Miscellaneous  Revo lvers.-Rcvolvcrs  Classified.            75


VI.     Test   of Military Revol vers hy  th e  United States


Ordnant;e Board                                                                      81


CHAPTER    VII.      Target Revolvers                                                                        97


CHAPTER VIII.       Pocket Re\olvers                                                                       107


CHAPTER      IX.     Ammunition for Pistols au<l ReYolvers                            127


X.     Reloading Alnmunition for  Pistols and  ReYOlYers   1!


CHAPTER      _’I.     Revolver Shooting Record in America                              .     153



CHAPTER    XII.     Some  Performan ces with th e Pistol                               . 175


CHAPTER XIII.  Pistol and  Revolver Shooting at Long gc.              189


CHAPTER XIV.       Impressions Formed by Investigation::                   .     195


CHAPTER     XY.      Rules for Pistol and  ReYolnr Shouting-  .



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DEVELOPIEN T   OF            AIERICAN  PISTOLS  AND                  RE\OLVERS.



A  PISTOL is a rifle  of  such  size  and  hape  that  it  can be aimed and  fired with one hand.        A revolver  is }1.    pistol with 1·evolving barrels  or a revolving  cylindel’.     In modern revolvers the  cylinder only  revolves, this  cylinder   being supplied  with  chambers  for  cartridges.     The   term  pistol is  applied   indiscriminately  by  many  to               both  single-shot pistols  and        revolvers ;   but         since                  the  shooting of  these arms  has  becom e p-opular, and  the skill  in shooting them has developed  to such  a high  degree,  there  is a recognized diff erence  in  the  arms,  and  in  the  skill  in  manipulating them;  therefore, to  distinguish         bet\veen  them,  they  are specified re pectively   as   the  single-shot         pistol   and     the revolver.

,             The  first    supply   of  single-shot     pistols  found   in    the

United States were  of  foreign  manufacture, being  almost

wholly  of   the  dueling pattern.    Next  came  the  manu­ facture of   home  products,   which   f or   many   years   was confined to hand  work.     These weapons  were, necessarily, quite  expensive; for besides  the  time  and  labor  required to make them,  they  were often  richly  embellished, adding to   their   expense.      A  pair  of  ancient  dueling  pistols,





either  of foreign  or domestic  manufacture, generally shows thei r  manufacture called   for  high  mechanical skill  with artistic conception.

Besides  the  single-shot   pistols  of  the  duelling pattern were   those  of   plainer  finish   for   military  work.     These pistols were of large  caliber, generally shooting a spherical bullet;  sometimes a   bullet   and   several   shot   were   em­ ployed.     These   pistols    were   often    of   smooth    bore. Next   came  the  manufacture  of  military rifled  pistols   by machinery, and  later, with   the   ad vent  of   the   metallic cartridge, the  production of  the  cheap,. single-shot breech­ loading pistol  of  small  caliber.

The  introduction of  the  revolver,   which  had  such  an apparent advantage over  the single-shot  pistol on account of  its  reserve  shots,  almost  drove  the  pistol into  disuse. It also  had   the  effect  of  lessening practicing with the pistol,  which  in  the  early  days  of  this  country was  con­ sidered  a gentleman’s accomplishment.  Fine  shooting became a lost  art,  and  the old-time  pistol shot  sank   into oblivion.     Speed  in  manipulating a  revolver   was  appar­ en tly    considered    of    more    i1nportance    than    extreme accuracy.

The  first  American  revolvers  were  crude   arms ;    their

chief    merits    being    the    reserve   fire   and    ability to    fire rapidly.            Improvements in the arm  to increase  its accuracy were slo·w. The  change  from  percussion   to rim-fire  cart­ ridges   retarded improve1nent   in  accuracy; from  rim-fire to central-fire cartridgeH  had  te same effect; and  it can be safely  said  that   American  breech-loading pistols   and revolvers were  not  brought  to a  high  state of    perfection until   within   a  few  years;  and       the    American   revolvers were far inferior, in point  of             accuracy, to  the  old muzzle­ loading rifled pistol  until  within  a short  time.

In  the year 1885  the writer  commenced  the publication


DEVELOPJ!ENT  OF  PISTOLS  AND  REVOLVERS.                     3



of  The Rifle,  a monthly  journal   devoted   to rifle shooting in all its  branches.     At  that  time I think  it was generally believed  by the  shooting fraternity that, with  one  excep­ tion, a  pistol  was  the  most  difficult  of  firearms  to shoot well.    The  revolver,   it was   thought, was  not   only  the most  difficult  of  all  firearms  to  shoot  accurately, but  it was  supposed  the  arm  was  incapable  of  doing  accurate work.   Such   statements appeared    repeatedly in   sports­ men’s  publications.

After considering the subject  for some time, the writer determined to devote  his attention to learning ·as much as he could  of  the  possibilities  of  modern   American   pistols and  revolvers, giving several  years  to the study of  those arms, and  writing  on the subject until  he had the  pleasure of seeing  American pistols, revolvers, ammunition, aud  the skill   of  those  using  the  same,  developed   to  a  point  far beyond ‘vhat it was considered possible.

I have  alluded to  the  revolver  supplanting the single­ shot               pistol        for         a    time.      This   was   chiefly   because    the revolver  was  considered  a  better  weapon of    defense.           As target practice  with  the  pistol increased in popularity, the ad vantages  of each arm were considered  to an infinitesimal degree.          As a result of this investigation, it became appar­ ent   that  the single-shot pllitol was an arm to  be preferred for  target work.    For  a          long    time    it   was               difficult         to determine  the       difference   in  accuracy   between        the           two arms.   I have  summarized the  opinions  of  expert  pistol shots,  and  the  result  shows that  to-day a majority  believe that   in  firing  100  shots  at   fifty  yards  on  the  Standard American target,  the  pistol   is  capable  of making   from fifteen  to twenty points  more than  the revolver.         Besides the  single-shot   pistol  being  considered  more  accurate, it can   be shot  100   shots  or  more  without  cleaning,  while the                 revolver   must  be    cleaned   often   to  maintain its  ac-





curacy; and  the  ammunition for  the  single-shot  pistol  is much  cheaper  than  that  u ed in revolvers.

These  are  f acts  which   have    been    demonstrated, and

consequently  the  manufacture of  single-shot  pistols  has been revived  in America.    The  target pistol  is now made in   greater  numbers    than   ever   before ;  and   while   the revolver  still   bolus  its popularity, and  is owned  and  shot by most  pistol  experts, yet  the  Bingle-shot  pistol  lS  more generally used  in  target and  match  shooting.




















































SINGLE-SHOT PISTOLS.                                              5













THERE   are   four    well-known     makor8     of   single-shot pistols  in  America: the  J. Stevens Arn1s  &  Tool  Co.,  of Chicopee Falls, Mass.; Smith  & Wesson, of            Springfield,

Mass. ;  “\Villiam vVurffiein,  of  Philadelphia, Penn. ;  and

The  Remington Arms  Co., of Ilion, N. Y.    Frank Wesson, of   Worcester   1\Iass.,  was   at  one   time   a   well-known maker   of  single-shot  pistols,   but   he  is  now   out   of   the business,  although his  pistols   are  on  the  market and   in use by mark men  to-day.   Besides the  n1anufacturers mentioned, there    are   a  few  gunmakers \vho  sometimes make   pistols   to  order,   but   they   rarely  make  such   arms except to accom1nodate   some particular customer desiring a special pistol.

Single-shot  pistols  are  made in  calibers  from  .22  to .50.

Most  of  them   are  made. in  .22  caliber  ; the Stevens, the Wurfflein, and  the  Smith & Wesson being  chambered and rifled         for  the   celebrated         long-rifle  cartridge  in    the  .22 caliber,  which  i    extremely accurate at  all  ranges at which pistol  are  shot.        This  celebrated cartridge was originated by the  J. Stevens Arms  & Tool  Co., and  first manufactured by     the Union     Metallic             Ca1tridge Co.,   at            Bridgeport, Conn.,   in  the  spring of  1886.      The   .25 caliber   rim-fire cartridge also     en joys a        popularity;     but      owing    to         the expense of     that   ammunition, and           its  liability  to  Iillsfire, it         is    not      so    popular     as           when first     in troduced.            The

.22-7-45  inside   lubricated  rim-fire   cartridge, introduced

by the Win chester Repeating A1·ms Co. in 1890, is rapidly becoming  popular, especially with  those  ‘vho  carry  a pistol for small  game  shooting.





Most   of  the   single-shot  pistols    of   American    make which  are exported, are  made  in  larger   calibers,  and  for central-fire   cartridges;  the .32  caliber  being   a   popular size,  as  the  central-fire   cartridges in  this caliber  can  be found  n1ore readily  abroad than  n1ost American cartridges. The  .44 caliber  is also  a favorite, the  latter being  chosen by some  in  order  that   they   may  have  one  cartridge  f r both pistol  and  revelver.

I know of  no  club  in  the  United States  that   places a limit   on  the  weight   of  a  pistol.     This  is  obviously  un­ necessary,  as it would  be difficult  to  hold  at  arms-length a pistol  beyond a certain  -vveight.    Most of   the single-shot pistols  used  for  target shooting have barrels ten  inches  in length.    Before   rules   govern ing   pistol   shooting  were perfected,  there   were  a  number  of  experts that  secured  pistols  with  twelve-inch barrels;  but  most  rules,  at  the time of  writing, f or bid  barrels  of  over  ten  inches.     The

length of   barrels   of  revelvers     is    usually    not   over  six    ·

inches,  so  it will  be  seen  that   the  pistol  has  a  decided advantage over  the revelver.

The  famous  Stevens single-shot  pistols   are  manufact­ ured  by  the  J. Stevens Arn1s  & Tool  Co.,  at  Chicopee Falls,   Mass.,  and  several   models  are  made  for  different purposes.     The  largest  and  heaviest  is known  as the  Lord model.     This  ann  is generally made in .22 caliber  with  a ten-inch  barrel, and  weighs  in  this  caliber  three  pounds. As  the  size  of  the caliber  is  increased,  the weight   of  the arm   is  slightly  lessened.    It  has  a  larger frame  and   a much  longer   handle  than   the other  models, as the person who suggested the model, Mr. Frank Lord, at  one time a celebrated  pistol  shot of  New York  City,  had a herculean frame,  and  preferred a  pistol  with  a  very  long   handle. This   pistol  was  formerly   rifled  and   chambered  for  the

.22  caliber  short  cartridge, but  at_,_the  present_ time_is,:as


SINGLE-SHOT  PISTOLS.                                           7


is  the· case  with  all  the  other  .22  caliber   pistols  manu­ f actured  by  this  company,   made  for  the  long-rifle  cart­ ridge; barrels  for  this  cartridge, also   for   the    .22-7-45

Winchester inside  lubricated cartridge requiring a quicker twist  than  in the  pistols for the .22 short.    The  change  of






.Iit g. 1. – Ur. J._Stevens, inventor of  Tbe  Stevens Pibtol.




the twist  is a decided   advantage, for it enables  one to use either  the  long-rifle uart1·idge,  the short   cartridge, or even the conical  breech  caps if  desi1 ed; while  with  the  pistols rifl ed  for  the  .22  short,   that   cartridge and   the   conical breech  caps alone  can be used.     The  Lord  Model Stevens pistols can be bored and  rifled for almost all of  the Amer-











Fig. 2.- The  Lord Model  Stevens PistoL


SINGLE-SHOT PISTOLS.                                              9



ican  pistol  cartridge , but  few  are  n1acle for larger than .25

caliber.     The  late   Ira    Paine preferred   the  Lord   model






Ftg.3.-Tbe Con ‘in 1\Iorlel  Ste\”ens Pi… tol.




pistol,  and  used  it in  his exhibitions up  to th e time  of  his death.

The   n ext   1nod el  is known as  the     Conlin   model.     It

usually  has  a  ten-inch   barrel, i   .22  caliber, and    weighs

2t pounds.   This    model  was  named    for     Ir. James  S.








Fig. 4.- Fifty consecutive shots with  a Stevens pistol  by Lieut. Sumner Paine. Shot at Walnut Hill at fifty yards, Feb. 22,1892. Score 461. Reduced one-quarter.









Fig. 5.-Fifty  consecutive shots  at 50 yards by  Mr.  R. S.  Harris.             Shot  1n  a match at Walnut Hill, Feb.  20, 1892, with a Stevens pistol.                                                   core 455, off­

band  count.     Target rectuced from 8-inch bull’s eye.


SINGLE-SHOT Pi  TOLS.                                           11



Conlin,   the  “·ell-known  proprietor of   Conlin·     hooting gallery  in Ne’v  York  City.     The  model  f onnerly had  the ide-covered  trigger, which was never  liked  by the ‘vriter.

\\r hen  deeply  interested in  pistol shooting, I      tried    the

different pi”‘tols manufacttu·ed   by the  J. Stevens Arms  &

Tool  Co.     I  found  the  Lord  model  too  heavy  for me to



































Fig.G.-Fifty consecuti;e sbots at 50 yar1ls, shot in a match  at ‘\\alnnt Hill, Feu.

22, 1 9’2, wltb a   tevens pistol, by  .lh·. .h.. E. Pnu·idge.       Score 453.




hold      teadily,     the    ConHn   model             was           objected   to     on account of the  ‘ide-coveTed  trigger;  therefore I attempted to alter  a  pi tol  to  better  suit   me.                   I procured a Conlin model fran1e.      Cutting off the side trigger guard,  I attached the  trigger guard of a Lord  model   pistol; and  when  I had altered  the  arm to better suit  me, I forwarded the sa1ne to the  J. Steven ..  Arms  & Tool  Co.            Thi ..    company  immedi­ ately  made a pistol  somewhat like  it, “rhich  ‘vas sent  for my inspection.            The  trigger guard   to  the  new pistol  had


















Fig. i.- C’opy of five consecutive shots by :’\lr.•r. B. Fellow  .          Score fifty, out  of a po  sible fif ty on Standard .american target; distance fifty  yarlls.  Shot with

a .22 caliber Stevens pi·tol  and long rifle cartndge of  U. 1\I.  c. Co., made

at the Falll\Ieeting of the Ia sachusett  Rifle As ociation 1888.

The higliest score marte  during the  meeting.

Target  full   ize.







SINGLE-SHOT PISTOLS .                                           13


a spur  on it,  to which  I objected,  and  the guard   was alto­ gether too small to suit  me.   The  J. Steven , Arms  & Tool Co. asked   permission  to call  the  pistol  the Gould  model,






Fig. 8.-The Gould  1\Iodel  Stevens Pistol.




to which  I objected,  as it was not like  the  one I thought I had improved.    The  trigger guard, with  and  without the spur,  was so much of an improvement over the side-covered trigger,   however,    that    the    manufacturers   abandoned










Fig. 9.-Ten shots at fifty  yards, with a Smith & Wesson si ngle.shot pistol, eight­ inch barrel chamuerecl and  rifiec\   for   the   Winchester ’22-7-45  cartridge. Shot by  Major C. \Y. Hinman.


































Fig. 10. -l ‘ifty con  ecuthe sbot. at fifty yarcl., shot hy    rr. J. B. Fellows, at Walnut Hill,   lass., witb  a  •te\·enl’l .22 caliber pi ·tnl  a1ul  U. l\1. C. Co.’s ammunition.   Score, 456 points, shot on fifty yards pistol target.








SINGLE-SHOT PISTOLS.                                            15


malting    the  original    Conlin   model,  and  called   the  one without the spur  the Gould  model, and  with  the spur  the Conlin  model.

Another model  produced by this  company  is called  the

Diamond   model.  It is much  smaller  in size, and  is made





Fig.11.-The Diamond :Model Stevens Pi tol.




with either a ten-inch  or a six-inch barrel.     The  weight  of the former  is ten ounces, and with  the latter twelve ounces. So1ne two  years  previous  to the time  of  writing, I carried a six-inch  barrel  Diamond  model to Walnut Hill,  and  was





Fig. 12. -Stevens Pistol, witb 3!inch barrel.







laughed at heartily for my  temerity; but  I had  confidence that  the arm  would  shoot  accurately.  Although I found some  difficulty  at  fu·st in shooting it well,  the raillery of my friends influenced me  to  practice  with  it until I had demonstrated the arm  to  be accurate.  Several  of the marksmen  at  that   famous  resort  then  adopted the arm, a number    altering  it   slightly.    Some   added   a   ten-inch












barrel  and  restocked  the  pistol,  which  makes a very  light and          extremely  accurate     pistol    when  fired   with    proper







Fig. 13.-Mr. J. B. Fellows, Boston, Amateur Pistol Shot.




sights; but so light an arm must  be handled  with  delicacy. To those  interested in pistol  practice  who  have moderate muscular strength in the arms, the lightness of this model commends itself.

There   are  two  other  models ·made  by the  above  com­

pany,  which  have  barrels   hree and   3t inehes  in  length,

and  consequently they  do  not  shoot   with  anything like the   accuracy   of  the   other   models.   They   are   intended chiefly for  pocket  pistols,  representing a minimum  of compactness with  accuracy.


SINGLE-S BOT  PiSTOLS.                                  17





















Fig. 14.-SteYens Pistols with Skeleton Stocks.





The  Stevens pistols  have made  some of  the  most wonderful  scores   known.     rrhe   barrels,   upon   which  so much  depends,  seem  to  be  perfect, and  probably   at  the present   time  there  are more Stevens pistols  in  the  hands of  famous  marksmen   throughout the  world  than   of  any other  make.

The  sights   attached   to  the  Stevens target  pistols  are










Fig. 15. -Sights for  Stevens Target Pistols.





generally a  bead front  sight  and  a rear  wind  gauge  sight, the   latter   being    operated  by   a  screw.      To   operate these   pistols,  half-cock   the  arm,  press  the  stud   on   the side  which   releases   the   barrel,  which   tips   down,  thus exposing  the  chamber   in  which  the  cartridge is  placed. The action  is then  closed, hammer  cocked, and the arm discharged.

The     mith   &   Wesson   single-shot     pistols    have  only

recently been  perfected, and  after   long  and  careful   con­ sideration characteristic of  the firm  producing them.     It is safe  to  say  there  is  no finer  made  pistol  in  the  world than   this  latest American product.   It  is  compact, sym­ metrical, made  and  finished  with  the  highest   mechanical skill.     The  first  single-shot pistol  produced  by this  firm was  of  .38  caliber; a  .32  caliber  soon  followed,  both  of these   calibers    taking   the   central-fire    cartridge.    The barrels   were  six  inches  in  length,    but   American    pistol shooters  at  once  called  for the .22 caliber  and  a  ten-inch barrel  for the long-rifle cartridge.   This call was responded to, and  the  ten-inch single-shot Smith  & Wesson  pistol has


SINGLE-SHOT PISTOLS.                                      19










Fig. 16. -The  New Smith & Wessou Single-Shot Pistol.





already   sprung into   popularity, and  shown   to  be  unsur­

passed for accuracy and  reliability.

These   pistols   have  barrels  from  six   to.  ten   inches  in length, and  are made in calibers  from  .22 to .38 inclusive, chambered   and  rifled   for   the  best  American  pistol  car­ tridges.

The  action  is  the same  as  the .38  caliber  single-action Model 1891 revolver ;  in  fact,  it is  the .38 caliber single­ action frame, hammer, trigger, trigger guard  and lock-work. Into   this  frame  is fitted   a single-shot  barrel.     The  barrel is fitted  with  a fine open  bead  front   sight, and,  althou gh very delicate in appearance, is sufficiently strong to prevent being   bent  in  any  ordinary  use.    Other styles   of  front sights can  be  used   if   preferred.   A  lateral  sliding  bar wind gauge,  similar  to  the· one on  the .44  Russian  model target revolver, is attached to the  barrel  clutch.  I have stated  that   the   arm   had   the  frame   of   the  .38 caliber revolver.   That  frame   has  a  stock   beautifully  modeled, and   just right   f or a revolver  with. ,3l  or four  inch  barrel, and  a  cylinder;  for  compactness and   symmetry  is  con­ sidered    in  making  an  arm  to  be  carried   in  the  pocket. But  a pistol  with  a barrel  six inches  long or even  longer, which is intended for target work,  might  be improved, according   to  the  ideas  of  pistol  experts, by  lengthening the handle,  and  the manufacturers have accomplished this by supplyin g  a nevv rubber  stock,  which  fits  so  perfectly over  the  stock   frame  as  to  make  a  longer   and   thicker handle,  givin g   ample   opportul)ity for  a   person  with   a large band  to grasp the handle  perfectly.  With this radical change  perfect symmetry and  balance have been preserved.

The  arm  is  operated by  lifting the  barrel  clutch, and

tipping the  barrel 1nuzzle  downwards, this  operatioll  act­ ing  on the  ejector  auto1natically, ejecting  the shell  of  an exploded  cartridge.





SJ:NGLE-SHOT PlSTOLS .                                           21






























































.b’ ig. 17. -Tlle “”Wurflleiu Single-Shot Pistol.





The  Wurffiein pistols,  made  by Mr. William Wurfflein, of  Philadelphia,  are   very  meritorious  arms,  thoroughly made   of   the    best    mR.terial  and   very   accurate.-     Mr. Wurfflein does not  manufacture pistols   in an y such  quan­ tities  as the  other  manufacturers, malting  the  most of  his









Fig. 18.-Mr. William Wurffiein , Inventor and l\Ianufactu rer of  the

Wurffiein Pistol.




arms  to order.    The  majority of   his  pistols  are  with  ten­ inch   barrels,   and  are  .22  caliber    for   the    long-rifle  car­ tridge ; though he will make them  for any pistol cartridge, for either  central or  rim-fire cartridges, or both, and  with barrels to interchange in one stock, and with  long  or short










SINGLE-SHOT PISTOLS.                                          23

barrels.     His  pistols weigh  from  2!to    3t pounds.    The arm  is  more  like  the               old  style   dueling pistol  in  appear-






Fig. 19.-. ThejWurffiein Single-Shot Pistol.             Open.




ance  than  any  other  American  pistol  now  manufactured. It is operated  as follows:-

The   projecting piece  back  of   the  hammer  is  pressed,


24     -“l !ODER.N LliERIC..I)t  PI  TOLS   AXD  REVOLVER



which    release   the   barrel.   \Yhich ha     a  tip-up  action enttbling the   hooter  to  readily  in ‘ert a cartridge or with­ dra'”” an exploded case.

Mr.V\T urffiein makes pistol– to order with special   haped stock”  or other  points  de ired  by cu  tamer –.






























‘Fig. 20.- Fifty <‘on  t'(‘UtiYC shc”” t::> , at fifty y:nlls. h) ‘lr. Rumner l’aiu(‘. at ” !llnut

Hill, ,lune 4.1  1:!. made with \Ynrtlieiu .:!2 <·:tlihr  pi:’t<ll.   ,·.n·e.  .W:!. whicll

t\.t time of  hooting, tieu Ute bst tuu:\ t ur r{·,,nl few tirt” with pistol.  Target reducecl tn }”‘  oriinal size. ·





c..   ”r

The   lle mington    –ingle-shot  pi ‘tol”  are  n1nch le’S   ele­ gant :viece ·of “orkmanship than the SteYcn·the       ‘urffiein, or the “‘n1ith            esson but  th ,re are  excellent point’ about  these  ar1ns which  will  be  apparent to the  in –pector as  he  examine ”  them.             Ther  posses– g1·ent strength  and “Tearing         qualities,          are          a.ccurn.t  · and          although  not  par­ ticularly symmetrical,     they  are          \Yell  balanced,  and  have uch excellent  handles               that,   wlwn gra “‘ ped         there          i ..   afeeling· of  firmnes”  and    teadine “‘ “·hicb  i”  Y  rifled when the shooter  attempts  to ight  it  on  a  stnall  object.      The pi , tol , are made in .:?2, .25, and  .32 caliber; the .5 caliber


SINGLE-SHOT PISTOLS.                                  25








Fig. 21. -The Remington Single-Shot Pistol.




being adapted for the  rim-fire cartridge, and the .32 caliber for  the short  or long  rim-fire Smith  & Wesson  and  the .32

Winchester   central-fire  cartridges.   The   pistol   is   also

made  in .50  caliber  with  full  round  barrel  and for central­ fire shell.     They  have  barrels  eight,  ten, or  twelve   inches long.

The  action  is similar   to the  old model Remington   rifle.

The   hammer  is  brought    to  a  full   cock,  a  breech   block rolled   back,  which  permits   the  barrel,  which  is  screwed into  a solid  frame,  being  inspected from  the  rear,  and  is thus  easily  cleaned.                                     All  attempts o  procure   discharges from these  arms  with  action  improperly closed  have  been unsuccessful, and  can  see  no  reason  why  they  are  not as safe  as  they  are  accurate.                                     Their  unusual strength  and weight   make  them  desirable  arms  for      long  range   pistol practice,  as  they  will  stand a  much  heavier   charge,  with comfort   to  the shooter,  than           would  ever  be  required for shooting at  any range.

The  Wesson  single-shot pistols  were formerly  manufact­

ured   by Frank  Wesson, at  Worcester,  Mass.    They   are operated as  follows : The  hammer  is  slightly raised  and held  by a pin pressed  in from  the  side; a projecting stud is pressed  at  the   bottom  of  the  receiver,   and   the   barrel turned over  to one side,-the sheH  of  the exploded   car­ tridge   thrown out  by the extractor.   The  arms  are  well balanced,  fitted  with  good  sights   of  different styles,   a.nd are   accurate,  but    not   to   be  con1pared  in  accuracy  at fifty  yards   with  the  more  J?Odern pistols   with   quicker twist,  and shooting improved  ammunition.

The   Colt’s   Patent    Fire-Arms   Manufacturing   Co.,  of

·    Hartford, Conn.,  formerly  made  three  styles  of single-shot Deringers.                      Two of  these  arms  are  no  longer   manufact­ ured, though  some are in use.    To operate  the old national Deringer, set  the  hammer  at half  cock, grasp   the  stock


SINGLE-SHOT PISTOLS.                                   27









Fig. 22.-Colt  Natioual Deringer.            Xot  n ow manufactured.





















1n  tht’  tight     lmnd.. 1nrl. dr:l\\·ing  back    tht\  Slt’t’l  bnttl1H


\\llh th\ ft”‘l”linl”r.     ll’l H      th    b.lrr  l   ll’\Hlrd

.\  tU   “·ith


S!.JY. C:EE-S II OT  PI   TOLS.                                             29











l•’ig. 24.-       olt Deringer. Not now manufactured.




the left hand.     Holding the  barrel  thus  turned  aside,  in­

troduce  the  cartridge, and  then  rotate  it  to  its  original





position.     After   firing,   the  empty   shell  may be  ejected by rotating the  barrel  as directed for loading.

In  the  Deringer now manufactured the  barrel  is held in

place    by  a  friction   catch;    pushing the  barrel  makes  it revolve  on a pivot  and  eject  automatically.

The  weight  of  the  old  Deringers are  about   ten  ounces

each ;  the  one  made  no-vv weighs  7t  ounces.        They   are powerful   pistols                    of  large   bore,  intended for weapons  of

defense  at short  range.


THE  OOLT  REVOLVER.                                 31













THE armory  of the Colt’s Patent Fire-Arms Manu­ facturing Company  is  located  at  Hartford, Conn.,  where the  famous  Colt  revolvers,  so  favorably known   through­ out   the   world   are    manufactured.    Samuel    Colt,   the inventor  of  the Colt  revolver, commenced  devising the mechanism  of  this arm  as early  as  1830; and  the  result of his ingenuity and skill  is  the  large   pla.nt  at  Hartford, where  the   Cult   revolver   has   been   produced   in   great quantities  for  half  a  century; the  establishment consists of  a  number  of   buildings, having   a  total machine  floor

space  of 7t acres, ‘vhile   there  are  actually 11.6   miles  of

live  belting.     The  styles  of  revolvers  made  by this  com­

pany are as follows : –

Single-Action    Army  Revolver:   length of   pistol,  12 inches; length of                         barrel,  7inches; bore  or  caliber,  .45 inch;   weight,             two          pounds             five    ounces;    rifling,    six grooves, one revolution in sixteen inches ;  depth  of groove,

.005 inch ; six shot.

CARTRIDGE.-Weight of powder,  forty  grains ; weight of lead,  250 grains.                          Central-fire, externl priming.

Army and Frontier Revolver: double-action ; full length of    pistol,  12t  inches; length   of  barrel,  4!,   5·h and   7 inches ;  weight  of        pistol  with  7!-inch barrel,  two  pounds seven  ounces ;      caliber,  .45     inch ;                six  shot. Made       with barrels of any  length, and for the old U. S. regulation car­ tridge,  or  the  .44  caliber  magazine  rifle  cartrid ge.     The revolver    taking        the      latter       cartridge  is   kno·wn      as           the

Frontier model,





New   Navy   Revolver:  double-action;       caliber,  .38  and

.41; central-fire ;    length  of  pistol,  11t inches ;   weight, two  pounds;  length of barrel,  three, 4, and six  inches.

New  Model,   .41:   double-action;   central-fire;   caliber,

.41;  six shot  ; length of  barrels,  4t,  five, and  six  inches.

New  Army   Revolver: double-action; caliber,   .38  and

.41;  central-fire; length of pistol, lll inches; weight,  two






Fig. 25. -Col. Samuel Colt,  Inventor of _ the Colt  Revolver.




pounds; length of barrels,  three,  4!,and six inches.

New  Model,  .38:  double-action;   central-fire;    caliber,

.38 ; six  shot;  length of   barrels,  2-h 3-!, 4t, five  and six inches.










THE  COLT  REVOLVER.                                    33










Fig. 26. -Original  Colt  Revolver.


3 .4.




New  Target  Revolver, in .32, .38,  .44  and  .45  caliber,


made on  single-action  frame.     This  company  also  makes these revolvers  for  the Russian  model .44 caliber cartridge, and for .436,  .450,  .455,  and  .476  Ely  cartridges.   These are  made with  long  handles  expressly  for  target work.

New   Pocket  Revolyer   (Army  revolver   design):  .32 caliber; 2t, 3and six-inch barrels ; weight, sixteen ounces.

The  above models represent  the various  revolvers made at  the Colt  armory  at  the  time  of  writing; but  there  will be found in use  many  Colt  revolvers  inade  up  differently than   those  mentioned.   There   are  t 1ousands  of  the  old model  army  and  navy  revolvers in existence to-day  which load at  the  muzzle of the cylinder.   In  this  model, as well as the .38 caliber, many have been altered to breech loaders, to  shoot   the  central-fire cartridges, and  are  accurate and fine shooting arn1s.    There   are  also  in  use  old  and   new model Colt  revolvers with  various   lengths of  barrels  and odd  calibers,   to  suit   the  “‘hims  and  fa.ncies  of  individ­ uals  requiring a revolver  for a particular kind  of work: revolvers in  single  action   of  various  calibers,   without  a trigger, and  fired  by drawing back  the  hammer  with  the thumb, and  releasing   it, as well  as  by  pressing back the hammer   ‘vith   the   left   hand,  and  releasing it,  with  the object  of discharging th e arm  more  rapidly  than  it could by cocking; A1·my and  Frontier models  with   very  short barrels,   for  parties   desiring the   most  powerful  revolver made in the  most  compact  form,  suitable  for  short   range only,  ·and   sacrificing  accuracy.    The   army   model  Colt revolver  has the following  mechanism: –

The hand,  or finger, or pawl, which revolves the cylinder has two  points,  one above  the  other.     The  upper  engages the  ratchet of  the  cylinder when  the  revolution  begins. But   before  the  necessary  sixth of – a  revolution could  be made, as the  pawl  moves in a plane,  and  the  ratchet tooth





















Fig. 27.-Colt Double-Action, .38 and  .41 calibers.              No. 1.




















in  the arc of  a circle  whose  plane  is  perpendicular to the pawl’s   plane  of  motion,  the  pawl  would  lose  its  hold  on the  tooth,  and  the  revolution of  the cylinder would  stop.

. To  prevent this,  the  second   point  is added; and just  as

the first  point  will  disengage from  the  ratchet, the second or  lower  point   engages  another tooth   of  the  ratchet and completes the revolution.  By this arrangement the pawl actuates a   larger   ratchet  than   it could   otherwise, and therefore exerts   more force  upon  the  cylinder, by acting upon a longer  lever  arm.    This  permits a ratchet of greater diameter, insuring greater leverage, facilitating rotation.

The  cylinder bas a  bushing, which  projects  in front   of

it, and  gives  three  surfaces   upon  which  the  cylinder re­ volves,  thus  diminishing the  chance  of  sticking from  dirt or rust,  and  also  giving a very small  axis upon  v.rhich to revolve,  decreasing the  moment   of  friction.   This   point, it is claimed,  is especially  advantageous in preventing the revolver fro1n becoming  inoperative when  exposed   to the elements.

When  the ejector  is used, it springs back  to  its  place, and  is ready  for  use again,  avoiding the  necessity  of  put­ ting  it back.

To   TAKE      APART     THE     REVOLVER. -Half      cock    the

revolver,   loosen  the  catch  screw  which  holds  the  center pin,  draw   out   the  center   pin,  open   the   gate,   and   the cylinder can then  be withdrawn.

To  remove  the ejector,  turn  out  the ejector  tube screw,

then  push  the ftont end a”ray· from  the barrel,  and  pull  it tovvard the  muzzle.     The  barrel  can then  be unscrewed.

The  stock   can   be  removed   by  turning  out   the  two screws  just behind  the  hammer,  and  that  at  the  bottom  of the strap.   All  the  parts  of  the  lock  are  then  displayed, and  can be readily  separated.

The cylinder  bushing should  be pushed  out for cleaning.


THE  COLT  REVOLVER.                                37














Fig. 28.-Colt  Double-Action, 38 and  .41 calibers.






T’-‘ r lU\.” Yt: th

….  ltt·\ n: rn.  ‘- ut a $Cl  \r in  the   0wer side


“f  th0  franh.”. hidd(l )  tY..

the   rrig-Q’r    ·ntlrd. then the   gatt!

‘-                                                      ‘-


sprin· and  c..’ ltcl

pusht’d   ‘Ut.


‘\  \Yithdrn\Yn.


and  the   gnr  “Ul  b



1\. h…. ld  tll0

..n, 1..-I’ir-:r     lh ti’-)n:  H’-….ldin-the  reYll-


‘”‘-“r iu t h     ll·tt Inu..:·-1 l’-‘\Y tnnu’t h.Lt          0-     it \\ith

t.bri  Ju  h,ntd ani     1)       n th   1tt:       s “‘vnd illl ri’-‘n : Inse ·r

tht.’ c, rtrid ‘in n ‘””‘ i      )l..  \Yich t .1 ri.g… ht  h:.uh. .       e the

1lte. \.” k and  11  ‘t;’\     1 -in· it     in t 1.  ri…    lHlh.t 0   b!ing…..


thh.\nnu  r      t\.) tht’   at t .

n ‘t ..h. .. s Ul..l\  be Ltesir d.


1\.’ ·    “t   the    \?..u·rridQ”e    hl s.-Fi.I t

n1.:   t ‘tt.”    u· Ll    1n t:1e  lt: ft h,1.nd.  l ali C’-“…


h,l h .. n i ‘- p “ll th(‘ – te.       t”’-ad 1lll.)ti\’\ll.

Ul  st ‘ e    l ‘:l  \Ytt l  tl’t’ .”..tvr           ‘t Bht    \y


nh’)tio 1.     Hlld­

\Yi h  the  right

EJe\?t t le he… s

he rig… hr  h1nd.





l …1 n\.l.

\\-h n   ·h      lh.::  h lv





” ‘ Ye · i.: n”,Y         t n· tl e \.’ ”ll i 111’ti   “\n of’

Th t  ‘ t         tl.     e    ‘-  t ‘h $   !.11  t.le  …  tu ‘     ‘- i   c”… $        .. :·:u.







l lll.

‘_-   “l\. t    l


. .













t t.l”l.. l t.._..

















ll tl ‘\

,-    ) 1     .!n













…n  t…..      .:: :r.    t-v               .


” lt


T’k                        a .\\ l’:::















Fig. 29.-Colt .Army Double-.Action, .44 aud .45 caliber.





been  much   testimony relative  to  the  merit-s  of    different American arms presented by expert revolver shots  during the  past  few years; the  special  uses of             certain arm3 have made  prominent desirable   or  undesirable features  which have               been  pointed   out.     A  careful  summarizing  of                    the opinions  shows  that a majority  of revolver  experts  believe that                   the  Colt  revolver   is  not  made      with  such  delicacy of    parts   as  some other   arms; but  it  is  evident that  this very  want   of              delicacy   of         the ·parts   is  much  ir:  favor  of

1ts adoption by those  desiring   a  revolver  powerful, accu­ rate,  and less aff ected  by exposure   to . the  elements ; per­ mitting  neglect  of  care  after   using,  and  requiring  less attention while  using.     It is  believed   that more shots  can be  fired  fron1  the   Colt  revolver  without  cleaning, and have  it work  well, than   any  other   revolver  of  American





Fig. 30.-Colt  Old  Army Single-Action.




make.    But with  the  cleaning found necessary to secure accuracy even  with   tllis arm,  it  seems   to   demand  less attention  than   other   revolvers ;  accurate  shooting  has been    secured  repeatedly,  even   after   firing   100   shots, by simply  swabbing  out  the  barrel  with  a brush  or clean­ ning  rod  with  a cloth   drawn   through a slot,  and  without removing  the  cylinder,  which  worked   well   after   firing

200 shots.     The  combined  points  of  the  solid  frame  and

the  arm  being  unaffected, so  far  as  operating it is  con·


THE  COLT  REVOL FER.                                          41

































































Fig. 31.-)lr. E. J. Darlington, 1Yilmington. Del.                  Amateur Pi “tol  and Revol'”er








cerned,  by  neglecting  to  clean  it ·while   using  or  after­ ward,   has  made    the   Colt   revolver  the   chosen  arm  of many  frontier men.  and   probably    influenced  the   mem­ bers of  the   Government  Ortlnance Board   in the  past  to favor  this  arm.

The   old    Army    .45   caliber    and    Frontier    model   .44

caliber  are identical in  model,  the difference  being  in   the






Fig. 32.- )Ir. Will E. Carlin, .:Unateur Pistol and Re’\”nlTer Shot.




caliber   and  the   chambering.   The  cartridge for  the  Colt re\oh·er  formerly adopted by the  U.   . Government  .45 caliber  straight.  i    loaded   with   forty   grains of   powder

and  a 250 grain  bullet.   The   .-±±  caliber   Frontier  model

take    a  magazin e  rifle  cartridge holding  forty grain     of powder  and  a  200  grain  bullet.   Both  of tbe”e  cartridges are powerful  and accurate.   There i “‘  an apparent difference in the  recoil, it  being le s in the  .44 caliber  rifle cartridge;





THE COLT REVOLVER.                                          43

the  fifty  grains   n1ore of  lead  in  the  .45  caliber   govern­ ment  cartridge noticeably  incTeasing recoil.     In  a number of  tests   made   with   these  two   cartridges, better  results were  generally secured  with  the   .44   caliber   rifle   car­ tridge, taking  six   shots   for   a   standard, it  being   the number   of  chambers   in   these    revolvers.      It  was   not difficult   to  place  the  six shots  in  a  five-inch  circle  at  a distance  of  fifty   yards,   often  in  a  four-inch   circle,  and







Fig. 33.-Thirty  shots at 121f2   yards with   .44  caliber Colt   revolver,  by    Mr.

W.  E. Carlin.




occasionally, with the .44 caliber 40-200 cartridge, a three­

inch  circle  \vould touch  or enclose  all of  the shots.

The  .41and .38 caliber revolvers of this company’s make are very accurate and  reliable  arms; the .38  caliber,  with the   six  and   seven  in ch   barrels,   are  chosen   by  persons desiring  an  accurate, quite   powerful,  and  pleasant   shoot­ Ing  weapon.    The  .38 caliber  with  the  six  and seven  inch barrels are surprisingly accurate up to fifty yards; the recoil is light   and not  unpleasant.   The  charge  is less powerful





than   the  .44  and  .45,  but  about   as  heavy  as  is  possible in an arm of its size and  \\·eight, and  retain   a satisfactory degreof   accuracy.   It  is  not  difficult, in  shooting with a rest,  to place six  shots  \vith this ann ‘vithin a three-inch circle  at  fifty  yards; and  this  feat  has been accom plished in off -hand  shooting \Titb a .38 caliber  Colt revolver with a seven-inch barrel.

Notwith::;tanding the admitted excellence  of the Colt revolvers, as  formerly  used  by  the  United   States  Army and  Navy,  there  \Vas deYeloped a feeling  that   the .44 and

.45  calibers   w·ere unnecessarily  powerful.   lVIany papers


were  written  by  officers  of  the  serrice 1·ecornmending a revolver which  could   be reloaded  q uicker  than  the  Colt revolver   then  in  use, and   shooting a  less  powerf ul  car­ tridge.     As   a  result the  New  Colt  Double-Action  Self ­ Cocking   revolver,  .38   caliber,   was  produced, and   first adopted    by  the    United    States  Nary,  and   later   with slight modifications   by the  United States   Ar1ny and  the volunteer forces of  several States.A description of this  new  model is as follows:-

Its cylinder  contains  six chan1bers.    Iu order  to  f acili­ tate  the  loading  of cartridges, and  to allo\\T  the simultane­ ous ejection   of  the  emptied   cartridge shells,  the cylinder is so  mounted upon  a  crane, pivoted  in  the frame  below the   cylinder  seat,   that,   on   drawing  the  cylinder   latch to the rear,  the  cylinder S\vings to the left  and  downward out  of its seat  in  the fran1e.    In this position all the cham­ bers  are  presented for  loading., while  pressure  against the end  of  the  ejector   rod  uucler  the   barrel   ejects   all   the shells.     Then,   after   ejecting  and   loading, th e  cylinder is returned to its seat  in the frame, the cylinder  latch automatically securing it there.

The  manufacturers of   the   Colt   revolver   claim,   by this construction all  the  facilities for  loading   and  e ject-










THE  COLT  REVOLVER.                                   45








Fig. 34. -Colt  Army 1\Iodel  1892, .38 and .41 ca.llbers.





ing  are   obtained    without sacrificing the  important  fea­ ture  of  a  solid  frame,   such   as  all   modern   Colt  pistols show; for,  there   being  no  hinge  or  joint   in   the  frame between   the  barrel  and  stock,  th ere is no wearing  which might   disturb the  accuracy  of the  pistol.     Its working is simple, so as to be un derstood  at  once, while  the absence of

co1nplicated and  delicate  parts  prevents it from getting out




Fig. 35. -Col c  Army  Revolve1· Model1892,  showing mode  of Extractmg  Shells.

of  order.     The  lock  mechanism   also  is  very  simple  and strong.    The  hammer  may be cocked  by the thumb or by the trigger, and after   firing it rebo unds,  and  is  positively locked  in  this  saf ety  position,  so that it cannot  strike the primer of a cartridge until it is again  cocked.   The cylinder cannot  be swung  out  of the frame unless  the hammer  is in its safety  positjon, and  the act of swingin g the cylinder out of the frame automatically locks the trigger and the hammer in this position.     Thus  premature discharges during manip­ ulation   are  prevented, as  also accidental discharges  from blows, such  as result from  a fall,  etc.


THE  COLT REVOLVER.                                          47


The  falling of  the  hammer  from  any  position  can not fire  a  shot   unless  the   trigger  is   fully   pulled   back   at the  same  time,  as  only then  the  hammer  can fall  beyond







Fig. 3G.-Old .1.\Iodel Colt  Revol er, with Stock Attachment.




the safety  position.     The  hand   or  pawl which  rotates the cylinder   has two  working   points  to  engage   the cylinder ratchet, and  by  an  ingenious construction  this  pawl also serves as cylinder  bolt, and  positively prevents any further





rotation after one of the chambers  in the cylinder coincides with  the  bore  of  the  barrel.     The  cylinder  latch  prevents its  backward rotation.






Fig. 37-Colt New Pocket .32 Caliber.




Fig.  34  gives  a  view  of   it  as  closed;  Fig.  35  shows it with  the cylinder swung   out,  and  the  ejector  is  repre­ sented  in  the act  of  throwing  out   the  empty  shells,  after


TilE COLT  REVOLVER.                                    49



which it  will  be automatically returned to its  place in the cylinder, which  then  will be ready for loading.

The  latest  product of  this  company  is   known   as  the

New Pocket Revolver.   This  model  embodies  the  princi-









Fig. 38.-Colt New Pocket Revolver.




pies   of   the   new   model  army   revolver  made   by  this company,  but  is on  a  small scale,  the  arm  being intended as  a   pocket  weapon.    It is   chambered   and   rifled   for various  .32 caliber  cartridge, and  will  shoot  either   long





or  short   Colt  cartridge, or  the  .32  Smith  & Wesson   car­ tridges.     It  can,  like  the  army  model,  be used either  as a sjngle-action revolver,  or as  double-action.   The  arm  is





































Fig. 39. -Diagram of  twelve successive shots, full  size,  at f ourteen measured yards, by  Mr. Walter ·winans                                            Shot at the  Brighton, Eng., Rit:le  Gallery, Feb. 14, 1889, with a Colt .45-caliber revolver, with full charge English

Army  Ammunition” Mark r.” Score 116 out of a possible 120.




compact,   well   made,   and   have  no  reason   to   doubt   its accuracy, but   at  the  time  of  writing have  not been able to  submit it  to  a  practical test.   It  weighs  one   pound. Fig. 37 shows  the  revolver,  as does Fig.  38,  the   latter illustrating the  mode of  extracting the shells  after  fir1ng.


S.J!ITH   & WESSON’S  PRODUCTIONS.                            51











THE armory  of  Messrs. Smith &  Wesson  is  at Spring­ field,  Mass.,  and  is  said  to  be  the  most complete   estab­ lishment for  the  manufacture of  revolvers  in  the  world. The  work   produced    at  this   armory   has   an   extensive reputation,  their   products  being  sent   to   nearly   every country  on   the   globe.    The   revolvers  are   beautifully made, as  perfect   as it seems  possible   to construct them : they have  a  plea ing  contour, are  symmetrical, well  bal­ anced,  and  possess great  accuracy.   These  revolvers were formerly  constructed in calibers  from .22  to .45, but  a f ew years  ago this firm discontinued making the .22 caliber. Formerly the .22 and  .32 calibers  were opened  by pressing a clutch  under  the action, and  the  barrel and cylinder were pushed   upward; the  cylinder was then  removed,  and  the shells, extracted from the  cylinder by a fixed post.    Later, the invention of  the automatic shell ejector was added, and the  revolver opened   by a clasp; the  barrel  and  cylinders tip  downward, the  action  at  the  same  time  e jecting   the shells.    This  m echanism  is one of  the greatest inventions ever  made in con n ection  with  revolvers, and  was  quickly adopted   by most  of  the  revolver manufacturers, both  at home  and   abroad,   as  early   as  the   patents covering   the invention expired.   All  of  the revolvers now made at the

f actory  of  Smith  & Wesson  are  a ter  this  model, and  are known  as follows : –

New  Model Army,  No. 3 : weight,  2t pounds; central­

fire; caliber  .44 · six shot; length of  barrel, 6t inches.




























































Fig. 40.-:Mr. D. B. vVesson, inventor of  the Smith & ·wesson Revol\’er.


SJ!ITH &  WESSON’S  PRODUCTIONS.                     53


New  Model  Navy,  No.3: double-action; central-fire; caliber .44;  six shot; weight,  2l6  pounds ; length  of  bar­ rel, four, five, and six inches.





Fig. 41.-Smith          &   Wesson  Navy Revolver,  adapted   for    various .44  caliber ca1·tridges.



:B”‘rontier  Revolver: .44 caliber; single-action; central­

fire;  weight, 2-i’lf  pounds; six shot; length  of barrel, four, five, and  6t inches.

Frontier  Revolver: .44 caliber;  double-action; central-













F1g. 42. -Smith & \Vesson  Army ReYolver.         Adapted for   the  Russian or  the

Frontier Cartridge.




fire;  weight,  2-fs- pounds ; six  shot; length of barrel,  four, five, six,  and  6t inches.


SMITH &  WESSON’S  PRODUCTIONS.                     55


New Model .38, model of 1891:  weight, sixteen ounces ; central-fire ;  caliber  .38;  five  shot; length of   barrel,  3-f, four,  five and six inches.

New Model .38:  double-action; central-fire; caliber .38;

five shot ; weight,  18  ounces ;  length of barrel,  3t,  four, five, and  six inches.

New Model .32 :  weight,  thirteen ounces; central-fire;





Fig. 4!l.-Ten shots at  fifty yards by  .:\.lr.F· E. Bennett.  Shot with a Smith &

Wesson   .44  caliber  Russian  Model   Revoh·er   with     U.  ti.   Cartridge

Co’s  ammunition.


caliber    .32 ; five  shot;    length of   barrel, three,   3!, and six  inches.

New Model .32: double-action; central-fire; caliber .32;

five shot; weight, fourteen ounces ; length  of barrel, three,

3t and six inches.

Ne’v Model Hammerless Safety  Revolver : central-fire; calibers  .32  and  .38;  weight  in .38  caliber,  18t ounces, with  barrels  of  different  lengths.





New  Target  Revolver, .32-.44: single-action;  central­ fire;  six  shot ;  weight,  2t   pounds ; length of  barrel,  6t inches.

New  Target  Revolver, .38-.44: single-action; central­




fire ; six  shot ;  weight,   2 t
pounds ; length of barrel,   6t



Probably the  chief    reason  why  the  products of  Smith

&  Wesson·  are  so  excellent, is   because  since  1859,   this firm  has  been  engaged exclusively in  this  special line  of work.     They   endeavored    to  procure  and   construct  the most complete  and  perfect machinery  for  the  manufacture of  their   revolvers ; and   by  the  system   of  inspection of parts  adopted  by  this  firm, the  slightest imperfection   in material  and  workmanship  may  be   d etected, and  when discovered is instantly condemned.

It has  been  my privilege   to  visit the factory  of  Smith

&  Weson  many  times, where  the  greatest freedom  was granted me for inspecting the  various  processes  of  manu­ facturing these famous revolvers.   The highest  mechanical skill  is employed; the  minutest def ect of  a part  causes it to  be  re jected ; the   gauges  are  superfinely constructed, and when  a part is fitted  to a gauge  it is so perfect  that  the human  eye can scarcely detect  the  part  from  the gauge.

The  barrels, cylinders, and  all the small  parts,  are  made of  the  best  quality of  cast  steel,  and  the  framework  of Bessemer  steel, made at Troy, N . Y.

I have  closely watched the impressions made upon some

of  the  most  skillful mechanics  in America  when a  Smith

&  Wesson  revolver  was  submitted  for  their   inspection. These   severest  of   critics   would   seem   to  revel  in   the pleasure  they experienced in seeing   such  a perfect   piece of mechanical work, and unhesitatingly commended  the workmanship in  the  highest  terms.     A   famous   maker of   hand-made dueling  pistols  in   , ranee  spent   days  in


S!Jf11’H & WESSON’S  PRODUCTIONS.                         57



examunng the  Smith  &  Wesson  Russian  1nodel army  re­ volver, using  a magnifying glass for the purpose of putting on the  finet  possible finish in  the mechanism,  in order  to





E’ig  44.-Smith & Wesson Target Revolver, in .45, .44, .38 and .32 caliber.




gaiu an absolute   perfect   working   of  the  parts.     He  pro­ nounced   it the finest  work  he  had ever  seen produced by machinery.


58       ..M.




One   of   the   noticeable  points   of   excellence   in   the Smith   &  Wesson   revolver, insured  by  the  perfection  of the parts,  is the complete  revolution of the cylinder, which brings  the chamber  exactly  opposite   the  barrel  when  the revolver  is cocked ; it being  absolutely necessary  that  the chamber  be opposite   the barrel  at  the  moment  of  the  dis­ charge  of  the  weapon  to secure  accurate results at  a  long distance. I have fired  shots,  from  revolvers well  known to the  trade,  where  the  cylinder  did  not  bring  the  cham­ bers   exactly opposite   the   barrel,  and   on  shooting the bullets  into  soft  snow, gathering them  afterwards for inspection, I found  one side of the bullet shaved  or scraped off, which  I believe  the  reader   will  see  is  likely to  im­ pair  the  accuracy of  the  arm.     This  fault is  common  in the cheap  revolvers, but  is not found  in Smith   & Wesson revolvers.

The  arm  is  operated as  follows: Holding the  revolver

by the  handle  in the  right   hand,  lift  the barrel  catch  with the left   thumb and  forefinger.    When  the  barrel  catch  is clear  of  the  barrel,   the  cylinder tips  downward, the car­ tridges are  then   placed   in   the  chambers,   the  barrel   is swung back  into. position,  when  the  barrel  catch  locks  the parts  together ;  the  hammer  cocked,  the  arm  discharged, then  opened  as before described, the  barrel   brought  down to a certain  point,  which acts automatically, and ejects  the shells.

The  .32 and  .38  caliber  revolvers  manufactured by this

firm are  chiefly  used  for  pocket   weapons ; but  some  are manuf actured with   barrels   six   inches  in  length,  which

make  excellent target  pistols  for twenty-five or fifty yards’


shooting ;’

those  of  the  latter caliber  are now classed  with


military   revolvers.   Since  revolver   shooting  has  become popular  in   America,   a   more   intelligent  study  of   this arm  bas  been  made  by marksmen   than  ever   before ; and





SMITH &  WESSON’S PRODU CTIONS.                                    59


while  the  advantages  of  a  solid   framed   revolver    with a fixed barrel  are admitted for  certain uses, it seems to be generally admitted  that   for  fine work,  where  accuracy  is the  chief object,  no revolver  is equal  to one which permits an inspection of  the  inside  of  the  barrel.   Any  revolver which  takes  a  cartridge of  sufficient   power  to   make   it






Fig. 45.-Smith & Wesson .38 caliber Single-Action Pocket Revolver.




a suitable weapon  of  defense,  will  foul,  with  most  of  the present  ammunition in use, to such  an extent as to impair the   revolver’s  accuracy after   a  dozen   shots,  and  many believe such is the  case with  a less number.     It is therefore the  custom   of  all  the  best  revolver shots  the  writer   has ever  met,  when  using  full charges  and  wishing   to do fine work, to clean the inside of the  barrel  as often  as every ten shots ; an easy operation with  revolvers made by this  firm.

‘The  old  American   model   Smith   &  Wesson   revolver was  a  great   favorite with  those  who  knew  what  weapon to   select   for   reliable   work.      Many  are  in   use   to-day, and    highly    valued     as    very   accurate  weapons ;  but this    model   was   superseded  by   a   new  model  army   re-





volver,   which   is    generally     known    as    the  .44   caliber Russian  model, the  name  being  given  on  account  of   the Russian     government      purchasing          150,000   of   them        for her cavalry.              This  model seems to grow  in popularity each year,  and  many  of the  best  revolver target shots  in Amer­ ica have selected it as their  choice of weapon.   Some time ago, when the  late  Chevalier Ira  Paine,  the  expert  pistol shot,  decided  to introduce revolver shooting as one of              the attractions of his exhibitions, he consulted Gastine Renette,






Fig. 46.-Smith & Wesson  .38 caliber Double-Action Pocket Revolver.




the  famous  pistol  manufacturer of  France,  as to  the  best weapon  for  his  purpose.      His   object   was  to   find   the most accurate revolver   which  would shoot  a  light  charge at short   range, indoors,  avoiding noise  and  smoke, and a charge  powerful enough  to do accurate shooting up to fifty yar& or  more, powerful  enough  to be considered  an army pistol.      These  two  experts spent  a great   amount  of  time in  this   work,  firing  thousands· of  shots  from  a  rest  and off-hand.               They   soon  discovered   what   the   writer   has mentioned,    that,   with    revolvers    of   some   make,   the


B!JJITB  & WESSON S  PRODU CTIOlt..S.                             61


chambers not stopping  exactly  opposite the barrel, the accuracy  was affected ; but  in   all  their  experiments   no revolvers came so near perfection as the .44 caliber Russian model  Smith  &  Wesson   revolver,  and  Chevalier   Paine





Fig. 47.-Smith & Wesson .32 caliber Single-Action Pocket Revolver.




used that  revolver exclusively  until  his death, in his stage work and outdoor shooting.                                                ·

As there  are many who wish to shoot a light  charge for target-work,  but recognize that  the six-inch  barrel is necessary, as well as a handle  of  proper  size  to  grasp, the manufacturers have produced .32 and .38 calibers in this model,  which  have  become  popular,   for   they   are   very accurate,  and have excellent sights  for fine work.

Of  those   who  select  the  Smith   &   Wesson   revolver a  majority  choose  the  Russian  model;  a  portion  select­ ing  the  .32  or  .38  calibers   and   many   the   .44   caliber. Those  who  choose the  .44  desiring  to  shoot   a  weapon which is both powerful and accurate, the Russian model possessing  both  of  these  points.    In  testing   this   model

.44   caliber  for   accuracy  at   a   distance   of  fifty   yards,

taking  six  shots  for   a  test, this   being   the  number   of chambers  in   the   cylinder,   marksmen   have   repeatedly,




62      JJODERJ.AJIERIC.d “‘  PI   TOL         ..:!J.D  RErOL rERS.



w-hen  hooting the  arm  w-ith a  rest,  placed  the  six  shots in a three-inch circle at fifn.· yards.

A new departure in  re\ol\ers was  made  in  the  Smith

&   \\.,..esson   hammerless   safety   reYolYerw-hich “Was  put on  the  market·a  few  years  agoand possesses many  points of  originality and  excellence.     The  in,entor of      tllis no\el

mechanism  is   Ir. D. B. -nresson, “Who has  prenously con­

tributed    so    much    toward    deYeloping    the     .A.merican






Fig. 48. -Smith &  Wesson  .S”J  caliber Double-.A..ctiou Pocket Re\oh er.




reYolv-er.   The  principle  is  applied   to  a pocket   revolyer or to a n1ilitary revolver.

A hammerless  reT”olver, a  short   time  ago, “‘-ould  have

been considered  an unsafe  weapon.    In  this  neT\ reYoh”·er w-ill be found  less liability to accidental discharge   than  in any   weapon   of   it  clas”   I  ha\e ever   inspected   this being  one  of  the   chief  object    kept   in  mind  Tr”hile   the inventor deyeloped  his mechanism.

A  large  proportion  of   tbe  accident ‘ which  occur  with

re\olvers arise  from  carele”‘ –ly manipulating the  hammer or trigger, or from leaving the wea 1on full cocked for                     orne child  or novice  to  find  and  accidentally discharge.                  The


SJ!ITil &  WESSON’S  PRODUCTIONS.                             63


pulls on different revolvers vary to such  an extent that sometimes  when  a strange revolver  with  an exposed  ham­ mer is in the hands  of an expert, an accidental discharge is liable  to occur.    This  is  avoided  in  the  ne\v  hammerless revolver.

In  addition   to  the  visible  hammer  being   the  cause  of many  accidents  is   the   constant  annoyance  caused   by its  projecting and  intel’fering with  quickly drawing the







Fig. 49.-Smith  & ‘Vesson .38  caliber Hammerless Revolver, six   inch  barrel classed as Army Revolver, with four inch  barrel and  under as

Pocket Revolvers.




weapon from the pocket or holster.    The  weapon described is for  the  use of  the soldier,  the  police officer, or for  those called   upon   to use  this   weapon  of  defense   rapidly   and effectively.  Hence  a self-acting or self-cocking revolver  is desirable ; and  by dispensing with  the  projecting outside hammer  the  rapidity of  action   in  drawing the weapon  is increased, and  a desirable  point  gained.

The   illustration  shows   the   mechanism   of   the   new arm.





A  is   the  safety   lever,   B  safety   latch, C   hammer,   D

trigger, F mainspring, G safety-latch spring.       The  ham-






Fig. 50. -Illustration of mechanism of Smith & “‘Wesson Hammerless Revolver.




mer C, which  is acted  upon  and  raised  by the  trigger D, as in their  self-cocking  arn1s, is kept  constantly locked  by the safety-latch  B,  which is held in position  by the safety­ latch  spring G.        The   point  is emphasized,  that  when not in use the arm cannot   be discharged, as will  be seen from the  arrangement of     the  parts.        When   held  in  the  hand






SJJITH  &  lFESSO_V’S PRODUCTI 0.1YS.                          65


for  firing,  the  natural pressure   exerted  by  the  hand  in the   moYement  of  pulling  trigger, and   the   approach  to the point  where  the  last  ounce of  pre–sure  discharges the weapon  is ea ily detected.   Previous to  the last  ounce of pressure   being   given,   a  careful   aim  is  taken, the  final pressure  applied, and  the  weapon  discharged.

Soon  after   the  Smith   & Wesson hammerless   revolver

was placed  upon  the market the attention of officers of the U. S. Cavalry  was  attracted  to  the  arm.     Con  iderable correspondence in  relation to  the  matter  was  developed. This   correspondence  “Was    in   the   form   of   letters  from Col. Elmer   Otis  of  8th  U. S. Cavalry,   and  others,  to  the Assistant Adjutant General  of the  Department of Dakota, and communication   to the Adjutant General  U. S. Army and  Assllitant   Adjutant  General Department of  Dakota, as well  as  to Capt.  Philip  Reade,  3d  Infantry, Inspector of  Small     rms  Practice, Division  of  the  Mi   ouri.

At that  time I was invited by army  officers to give my

opinion   as  to  the  best  revolver for  the  U. S. Army,  but the nature of my po ition forbade  my doing   o if I desired  ; besides  I preferred  to  be  a  chronicler  of  events   rather than  an ad Yocate of any system.

It was evident  that  Colonel Otis and  other had a prefer­

ence for  the Smith  & Wes8on  hammerle  s safety  revolver, judging                from    the    following excerpts,    which   also  show some  changes    were          desired   in      revolver   practice in  the U. S. Army.     Colonel  Otis  recommended  removing pistol practice  from carbine   practice, in order  that  proper  atten­ tion  be  given   to  becon1ing  proficient   in      the  use  of     the revolver.                  He  said :         “The pistol   practice   should   be  as extensive as  that   for  the  carbine.      For  close  quarters it is  a  most              efficient                        arm  if        properly   handled.   But   it  is intended                      only  for    close   and  rapid   firing.    I would  not desire  men whom I lead    to commence  firing  at a greater





distance than  twenty yards,  and  recommend   lowering the pistol,   extending the   arm  and   firing,   the  same  as  you would   point  your  finger.     As you fire at  least  two shots with  the  pistol to one with  the  carbine,  half  the  time  (one month)  allotted  to the former  is sufficient.




“It is thought,” continued Colonel Otis, “that a double­ action  revolver  would  add  greatly to the accuracy of fire. The  danger  of  premature  discharge  with  a double-action pistol,  constructed like   the  Smith  & Wesson,   is  thought















Fig. 51. -Smith &  Wesson .32 caliber Hammerless Revolver.



to be less than  with  the  present  revolver.   The  .45-caliber is      unnecessarily large,   and  the  range  greater than    there is  any  need       for.    A reduction in  the  former,   therefore, decreasing weight  of      pistol  and    ammunition, would  be  a gain to  the      trooper   in  comfort,   and  would    not        detract from  the  effectiveness of the weapon.           An effective  range of  sixty   yards       is  suffi cient, and  a  pistol  would   not  and should not  be  used      at  a  greater.     I desire   to  have my regiment armed  with  a good, strong, and    effective      pistol before  the  commencement of     this  season’s       practice,   and request to  be      informed whether   or  not  requisitions for


SJJITH & WESSON’S  PRODUCTIONS.                             67






l.”ig. 52.-Smith & Wesson  Revolver with Rifie Stock  attached.





the  Smith  & Wesson  double-action revolver  can  be filled. A  trial  would  afford   an  opportunity for  comparison   for the  two  classes  of  pistols,  and  demonstrate which  would be the  better  arm for mounted troops.

“The pistol can be made an effective arm in the hands of instructed men,  but   the first  requisite is that   the w.eapon itself  be as perfectly constructed as possible.                          If  we are  to · have  a pistol,  let  us have  the best, and  let  us  be properly instructed in  the same, so  that   we can work  with  it  with confidence  and  precision.”

A requisition for 100  of  the  .38 caliber  safety  hammer­ less Smith   &  Wesson  revolvers was made, and  they  were shipped  from  the factory in  July, 1890.

One  of these   revolvers     was  submitted     to   me,  and   I devoted   some  time  to  examining and  testing it, making  , the following  report: –

The revolver  weighs  twenty-one ounces; it is similar  in model  to  the regular .38-caliber  safety  hammerless  pocket revolver, except   there  is  an  improvement in  the  barrel clutch which makes it impossible  to discharge  the arm if the barrel clutch is not fully down; or if one partially closes the action,  and  the  barrel  clutch is not  in its  proper  place, the cylinder fails  to revolve  and  the arm cannot  b.e discharged. This  improvement adds  another feature of  safety  to  this revolver.    The   barrel   is  six   inches   long,  exclusive  of cylinder.   In   testing  this revolver  for accuracy, it was at

,once seen  that  it vvas far  more difficult for a person  accus­




tomed  only  to  the  use  of  a  target  revolver  with  a light trigger pull,  to  shoot   it as   accurately  as  the   other   re­ volvers of this firm’s manufacture. It is beaut]fully made, in  every   particular equal   to   the  other  fine  products of this  firm ; but  the  self-cocking pistol  is  at  first  difficult to hold steadily ‘Yhile applying pressure  sufficient  to discharge  it.    Shooting at  the  fifty-yard   pistol  target, it


SJ!ITH &  WESSON’S PRODUCTI01V S.                           69



was difficult  at first  to  hold  it still and  apply  the  pres­ sure   required ;   but   the   bullet   would  strike   where  the revolver  was aimed at  the moment   of  discharge.    I men­ tion  this   and  emphasize  it; for  probably  many excellent pistol  shots,  unaccustomed to  the  use  of  a  self-cocking revolver, will express  disappointment at  the first trial  of this arm.

The    hamrnerless  saf ety  system  is  a  radical  departure

from the single-action pistol; and  few persons, I imagine, who  have  been  trained only  to the  light  trigger pull  of the  target  pistol  will    be  able  to shoot  it  at once  with great accuracy.   On the other  hand,  it has been found  by actu al experiment that, in  the  hands  of  those  ‘vho  only occasionally  use  a  revolver, some of  whom ‘vere  cowboys of Colorado,  a number  would  do more accurate \Vork with one of these revolvers than with the target revolver, -due, no doubt, to the f act that  the necessary pull  rather steadied than   disturbed the  untrained  nerves.   If ,  however,   one accustoms  himself  to shooting this  arn1, the  trigger finger naturally becomes trained so as to apply sufficient  pressure to  nearly  discharge   it;  then  secure   a  good  aim, apply  a little more  pressure   to  the  trigger, and   the  arm  is  dis­ charged.     This,  be it  understood, applies  chiefly to  firing with  a steady  aim.    Each   time  I shot   this arm  I experi­ enced less difficulty  and  made better  targets. I therefore feel  warranted in expres  ing  my belief that  one with  prac­ tice can acquire sufficient  proficien cy to shoot at fifty yards, and  place a majority  of  the shots  in   the regulation bulls­ eye.    The arm contains  features which make nearly  all the accidental discharges in other revolvers impossible  in this ; it is  a  more  rapid  firing  arm  than  any  single-action  re­ volver;  it is very light and  compact,  and  it is claimed   by some cavalry  officers is sufficiently powerful, and is capable of deadly and rapid  work  at the range indicated by Colonel Otis.













































….. . I


































.lt’ig. 53.-:’!Ir. Walter ‘Winans, winner of  most of  tbe English Revolve1· Competitions with

American Revolvers.


SJJITB &  WESSON’S P RODUOTIONS .                                71


When   these  revolvers  were completed  and   before  they left  the  factory,   each  arm  was  shot   for  accuracy.   The shooting was  done  by  Mr.  Z. C. Talbot, the  well known rifleman.     He fired ten shots  from each revolver, or 1,000 shots in all.    The  Standard American  target, with  a  two­ inch bullseye  was used, and  the shooting done  off-hand at a distance   of  twelve  yards,  a  n ew  target  being taken  for ach series  or each revolver.   Following are  the  totals  of

the 100  shots in  ten shot scores : -·




lat Series.













Av’ge 80.8


2ci Series.














3<1 Series.















4tb  Series.

















6th Series.













Av’ge. 83.8


6t1.J  Series.















7tb Series















8th  Series.





























Flg. 54.-Six  shots at t welve  yards with  .44-caliber Smith   &  Wesson Revolver, by  Theo. E. Beck,



.New  York.



































Fig.  56.-Six  shots  with      Smith   &

Wesson .4t-caliber revolver, at twelve  yards,  by   Theo.            E. Beck, New   York.

Fig-. 55.-Six     shots with    Smith & Wesson  .44-calil.>er  revolver,  a t twelve       yards, by                 Alfred Brennon, New   York.

















Fig. 57. – Seven      shots  at     twelve yards, with  a  .32-.44  Smith  & Wesson  Revolver,  made  by Walter     Winans,  at  the

Brighton Rifle Gallery, England, Nov. 16,



S1lfiTH  & WESSON’S  PRODUCTIONS.                            73


9th  Series.


lOth Series.










87 84 5-838
87 84 8-872
87 84 4-793
87 84 6-781
86 84 10-855
86 83 9-871

871                            855                            100) 8309 ( 83.09  Av’ge.

Av’ge. 87.1                   85.5        Total  No. of points, 8309. Average per score, 83.09.                  Average value  per shot, 8.30.


As twenty yards was mentioned as the range at  which Colonel Otis desired hjs firing  to begin, some experiments in rapid  firing were  tried  at  that  distance  by experts  in presence of the  writer.   It was not a difficult performance to  place  the  five shots  the revolver  was charged  with, in the  eight-inch  bullseye, firing  with considerable   rapidity and  without  lowering  the aiming arm.    The recoil  being light,  one could  quickly  recover  the aim lost for a second by the discharge.    This inability  to take a quick, accurate shot  with a  heavily charged  revolver  is almost invariably experienced  by those shooting such arrus.

Another   interesting experiment ‘vas tried.   Standing opposite a  row of  targets,  at  twenty yards, one shot only would be placed on each target  w!thout  lowering  the  arm and firing rapidly.    At  that  range, with a steady  aim, hit­ ting the  bullseye would  be a very ordinary  performance ; and following the manner  of shooting described, it showed the arm capable of being handled  effectively at that  range.










Fig. 58.-Chevalier  Ira Paine shooting a Glass  Ball  from  bls wife’s hand s  \VIth a Smith  & Wesson  .44: cal.  Russian

:Model Revolver. From a photograph taken  at Walnut !1111, 1\fas&., by the author.










ltfiSCELL.tLNEOCB RErOLVERS.                                        75











THE  Smith   &  Wesson   and   the   Colt  revolvers   are generally  recognized   in  America   a    the   best   types   of revolvers f or  1nilitary  work.   The  world  at   large,   it is thought, would  think like·wise if familiar  \\rith  the various products of  different  countrie   in  this  line.    1’he  superi­ ority  of  the  e  two  make   of  weapon   ‘varrants the  space given  in de cribing   them.    But there  are other  reYolvers held  in  esteem   by some.    The   Remington  revelver   is a

strong, well-made   arm,  and   shoots   accuratel?.     It    fires




six  shots ; i  .44 caliber; has  barrels   5 1
and   7inches


in  length ;  and    hoots  the   .44-40- 00   cartridge.  It  is made  by the Remington Arms Co., at  ]lion, N. Y.

The   Merwin,   Hulbert &  Co.’s Autonw.tic  revolver   is manuf actu red at  Nor,vich,  Conn.    The  mechanism  of this arm is entirely different from  any other 111ake of A1nerican revolvers. It  i   well constructed, the  part::; being  made with  great  care and with a nicety of fitting  which is highly creditable to the manufacturers.   The material from -which they are con  tructecl  is forged  steel.

The mode of operating the  arm  i , a , follow  : –

To Lo.AD. -Place  the  hammer  at  half  cock, press  the loading gate  down ward, and  insert   the.cartridges.

To   EJECT      THE    SHELLS. – Take    the   revolver   in  the

right  hand,  place   the  left   hand   on  the  barrel \Vitl;l.  the thumb  on  the  button  under   the  f rame, push   the  button toward  the guard, turn  the  barrel  outward, and  draw  f or­ ward, ‘vhen  the . hells ‘-vill  fall  out.

To  TAICE   TIIE  ARM  APART. –       Vhen   the  barrel  and

cylinder are drawn   forward, as above described,  press the





barrel catch   do,Yn and  draw   forward.   No screwdTiver  is needed to  take  the  arm  apart or interchange the  barrels.

There are a number  of  different models  1nanufactured with  and  without the  folding hammer i1.32, .38, and  .44








Fig. 59.- :i\lr. George  R. Russell, ReYolYer and Pistol Shot.       Boston, Mass.




calibers, with   barrels from   three iuches   to  5t inches   in length, and   five  and   seven   cban1bers   in   the   cylinders. The .38 and   .44  caliber  are  also manufactured with   the regular hammer.

This :fi.Ttn   also  1uake    a  solid  frame   re\olver of  cheap grade.

In inspectin g  the  revol”rer    of  thi”‘ 1nake    there “·ill  be

found a nun1ber  which  are  not  adapted to  fine  shooting, but  would   be classed   as  short-range weapons   of  defense,


J!ISCELLANEOUS REYOLYERS.                             77


or pocket reYolYers.    Those 1\rith the 3 -inch  barrels w·oulcl never  be –elected  by the  person  de–iring  accuracy  at any di tance  beyond a few yards; but  the .32 and  .38 calibers, with  a  5 -incb   barrel,  are   considered  by  many  as  fine shooting “eapons.



It is evide nt that  the action  of  the    Merwin,  Hulbert &











































Fig. GO.-   core  of  ninety-five out of  a  possible 100, on  , tandard  Amencan

target,  hot by 1\lr. George R. Russell, with a           tcYens pi tol, at twenty yards.  (Full size.)







Co.  revolver  possesses  as  much  strength as 1nost  of  the revolver actions  on the market.   It permits  o£ being  taken apart  with  ease  and  despatch,  which  enables  the  user  to clean the barrel and cylinder in  the most thorough manner.

Af ter cleaning, the arm can be quickly assembled;   more





so, it is thought, th an any other  American  revolver. It can be l oaded  very  quickly by pressing   the button under   the f rame toward   the guard, turning  the  barrel  outward, and drawing forvvard, when the shells f all out; fresh  cartridges are  then inserted.   The  rapidity of  operation of  this arm can hardly  be credited until  one witnesses  the revolver manipulated by a person familiar  with  its  operation.

A very noticeable point  about  this weapon is the ability






Fig. 61.-lV!r. W..T. Whiteford.       Amatem·Pistol _Shot.   Barnard,'”Mo.




to   combine  a  target with  a pocket  revol ver,  as with  a  number   of  the  models  two  barrels  are  supplied :

one 5t-inch, and the other  three  or 3t inch  barrel.

The  .32 and  .38 caliber   revolvers  \vith  5t-inch  barrels and folding  ban1mer  are  nicely  balanced   arms,  an d  when properly  sighted are capable  of  doing  fine work; but,  un­ fortunately, they  are double-action, and  while this  feature


MISOELLA NEOUS   REVOLVERS.                             79



may  be  a  desirable  point   in  revolvers for   defense, for target   practice   or  fine  shooting it is a  detriment rather than  an  advantage.    But   this  firm  also  makes  a  single­ action  with  a regular  hammer  in .’38 caliber, in which  the trigger  pull  can  be brought to  a  state  of  smoothness   and fineness,  which,  if  the  arm  is  handled by  a  good   shot, will  show excellent work.

TbeArmy revolver  is made in sin gle and double-action,







Fig. 62.-Fifty consecutive   hots,  at fifty yards, by  1\Ir. F. E. Bennett.    Stevens

pi  tol, .22 caliber long-rifle cartridge.  J4 original size.




with and without the folding  hammer.     Most of the army models  are  chambered   to  take   tbe  Winchester rifle  car­ tridge,  .44 caliber, holding  forty  grains  of powder  and  200 grains  of lead.

The  Merwin,  Hulbert & Co.’s  revolver has  been  thor­

oughly  tested  by the  Government Ordnance Board,  which





reports as  follows  on  its  tests  of  a  six-shot,  .42  caliber, seven-inch     barrel    revolver,    weight    two   pounds   llt ounces,  using  a charge  of  twenty-three grains  of  powder and  a 252-grain  bullet.

On   the  whole,  the   board  regarded   it  as  a  very  _good pistol, it having endured the  tests  in a fairly  satisf  ctory manner.

Revolvers are classed  at  the  present  time as follows:­

Military revolvers,  being fitted  with  a plain,  open sight, strong enough   to  stand the  rough   usage  to  which   the arm  would  naturally be  subjected;.  of  suitable  power  to kill   readily  and  shooting fixed  ammunition which  can be carried  in  the  belt  or  proper  receptacle.   The  second  is the  target revolver,  which  may  be of  the same  pattern as the  military   revolver,   but  fitted   with  fine  sights,   which are   generally  too   delicate   for   rough   military  work ; a lateral wind  gauge  on the  rear  sight   and  an arrangement for securing elevations is also permitted on such  revol-v-ers.

The  ammunition for  these  weapons  is according   to  the    ..

choice  o{  the   marksman, frequently  being   loaded  with

only  a light   charge,  thus  doing away  with  the unpleasant recoil,  and   lessening  the   liability of  excessive   fouling vhen  firing.    The   third   is  the   pocket   revolver,   which clubs  indulging in shooting with   this  weapon,  class  as revolvers  of  not less than  .32 caliber,  with  barrels  of  four inches  and  under.


TESTS OF  MILITARY REVOLVERS.                                 81












IN a pre vious  chapter   I referred   to  the  action   of  the United States  Government in  adopting a  .38  caliber  re­ volver  for  the  Army   and  Navy.     Prior   to  adopting the Colt  revolver,  a test  was  made  of a Smith  & Wesson   .38 caliber  of  the  ha.mmerless  pattern, and   a   Colt   double­ action revolver of the same caliber, at  the  United States Armory,    at   Springfield,   l\1ass.     The   board   made   the following  official report : –


The  board  appointed to conduct   these  tests  met  the first  time on April15.   By the report it will be seen that  the  nomenclature of  component parts   of  the   Smith   &  Wesson   revolver   are   as follows :-


1.  Barrel.                                       19.  Joint pivot  and screw.

2.    Cylinder.                                   20.    Hammer stud.

3.  Frame.                                      21.   Firing pin bushing.

4.   Stop.                                          22.   Firing pin.

5. Barrel catch.                              23.    Extractor stud.

6.   ‘Safety lever.                             24.  Right-hand stock.

7.    Guard.                                       25.    Left-band stock.

8.  Side  plate.                                26.    Extractor cam and  latch.

9. Base  pin.                                   27.      ight.

10.  Barrel catch  lif ter.                   28.    Split spring.

11.   Cylinder book.                          29.  Hand     pring.

12.   Extractor post.                         30.  Barrel catch spring.

13.  Extractor.                                  31.   Fi ring pin spring.

14.  Trigger.                                     32.    Cylinder  book sprin g.

15.  Hammer.                                     33.    Cylinder  stop  spring.

16.  Stock screw.                              34.  Latch   pnug.

17.  Strain  screw.                            35.  Haud.

18.   Short plate  screw.                   36.  Stirrup.






37.   Front sear.

38.   Extractor spring.

39.  M

.         .

a1n spr1ng.

40.   Nut.


Also the following  pins:-




Trigger spring.


Barrel catch lifter  spring.

Safety  latch.


44.    Cylinder  stop  spring pin.

45.    Latch  spring pin.

46.  Safety  lever  pin.

47.    Cylinder  hook pin.

48.  Barrel catch  pin.

49.   Firing pin bushing pin.

50.  Barrel catch  lifter  pin.

51.   Stop  pin.

52.  Latch pin.

53.   Trigger pin.



The  dimensions of  the arm are:­ Tota1length, 9.23 inches.

Length of barrel, 5 inches.

Diameter of bore,  .35 inch. Number of grooves, 5.

Kind  of grooves, circle of about  .36 inch.

Depth of grooves, .005 inch.

Grooves,  depth, uniform or not?        Uniform. Grooves,·twist of, one turn in 18.56  inches. Grooves,  twist, ;right-handed.

Grooves,  twist, uniform. Number of chambers, 5.

Diameter of chambers, .388 inch. Length of cylinder, 1.215 inches. Diameter of cylinder, 1.30  inches.

Total  weight, 1 pound, 1690 grains; 1.24142  pounds.

Weight  of powder  charge, 15 grains. Weight  of bullet, 146  grains.


The  nomenclature and  dimensions of  the  Colt  revolver at·e as follows:-

1. Frame cap.                                   9. Ejector spring.

2.   Cap screws  (2).                        10.   Crane.

3. Frame.                                       11.   Crane  nut.

4.  Recoil  bouching.                      12.  Crane  lock.

5. Cylinder.                                    13.  Crane  lock screw.

6. Ejector and ratchet.                14.  Barrel and sight.

7. Ejector rod.                              15.  Latch.

8. Ejector rod head.                     16.  Latch spring.


TESTS OF  !J!ILITARY REVOLVERS.                                  83



17.  Latch pin.                                 29.    Rebound spring pin.

18.  Half stock    (2).                        30.  Rebound lever  pin.

19.  Escutcheons (2).                        31.  Hammer.

20.      tock screws  (2).                     32.   Hammer strut.

21.      t0ck pin.                                  33.   Hammer strut spring.


2=.>rJ– .

Hanel.                                       34.  Hammer strut spring pin.


23.  Hand  sprin g.                            35.  Ham1ner  pin.

24.  Trigger.                                     36.    Hammer stirrup.

25.    Trio0-o0-e1· pin.                              37.  Hammer stirrup pin.

26. Trigger rebound pin. 38. 1ain spring.
27. Rebound spring. 39. Strain screw.
28. Rebound lever.


Total  length , 11.30 inches. Length of barrel, 5.96 inches. Diameter of bore,  .362 inch. Grooves,  number of, 6.

Grooves,  kind  of, circle of about  .58 inch.

Grooves,  depth  of, .005 inch.

Grooves,  depth, uniform or not?        Uniform.

Grooves,  twist,  right-handed or left-handed?       Left-handed. Grooves,  twist,  uniforn1, increasing or  decreasing?                        Uniform,

one turn  in 16.02  inches. Chambers, number of, 6.

Cylinder, diameter of, 1.45 inches. Total  weight,  2 pounds, 112 grains. Weight of powder  charge, 18 grains.

\V eight  of bullet, 150 grains.


The  report of  the regular tests,  as  given  by the  Report of  the

Chief of Ordnance, is as follows:-


I.- Dismounting  and .Assem.bling.

(1)  Find  the time required by an ordinary t to dismount each revolver.

(2)  Find  the time  required for the same machinist to completely assemble  the parts  of each  revolver.

Every part  must  be dismounted and  assembled, no  matter how small.

The  dismounting and  assembling was  performed by :Mr. R. T.






It was found  nece”  ary to send  to the manufact urers for special drifts and other  appliances for  dismounting the Smith  u    Wesson revolver ·  and   only  after   repeated attempts, and  instruction  by an  expert furnished by  Smith   & Wessonwa   Mr.  I;Iare  able  to






Fig. 63.-iiir. John L.Fowle, “-olmru, :i\[n  s. ..;\.matem·ReYolver n nd Pistol Shot.




mount   and  di”tuount  the   revolyer  with  any  degree   of  facility. The  large  num ber  of  parts   the  nicety  of  fit,  and  the knack   re­ quired  in portion of  the  as  embling,  would  make  it impossible the  board  thinks   for  an  ordinary  mechanic to  perform   this test without injuring the revolver.


TESTS OF  )/ILIT..J.RY  RE VOL VERI·.                              85


The     olt  revolver was  di  mounted and  a . einbl cd  by fr.  IIare without much  difficulty.




The time taken wa    as follows: –


To  Dismount.



‘J’o  .Mottn t.


Smith & Wesson.

By expert. .

By Mr. Jinre . Colt,  by  rr. Ilarc .







Smith & ‘\rcsou.

By expert.   .

By rr.  IIn.n’  . Colt, by  l\ fr. .






7 :l





II.- Illit’irll  r·ezocllies.


(1) Take the  mean  of th e initial Yelodt ies d ete rmined by  firing ten  rounds, Le  Bo ulengc chronograph u::,ed.

(2) Break up  ten   cartridges and  weigh  lhe  charges of  powder and  of lead  in  each,  eparately.

Take lhe  m enns   of  the  weight   of  the  powder ancl  of  the  lead for   the   charge, which giYes  the   n1ean  initial  velocity.   Do   this for  each kind  of cartridge u eel .

mith  e ” “‘es on  revolver, mean of  charges of  powder n.nd  lead

obtained by  breaking up ten  cartridge:  weight of  powder, l·Ll 25 grains; weigh t. of  bullet, 146.30 grains;  lenglh of lmrrel, 5.”0.

Colt revolver, m ean  of charg es of powder and   ]cad  obt.aiued by

b reaking   up   t en    c:a rt riclges : wejgh t  of powcler,   17.85 grai n  ;



weight of bullet , 150  grain ; len gt h of harrcl, ,)”.!HLVelocities  at.  2J  feet from muzzle.-. mith   &      essou   revo1- Yer:  607., G24.6,  637.4, G45.1, GG-LS, GlH.l,  no1.n, n-t.>.n,  HOi.:i,

613.5, n1ean  H35..) f ee t;  tncao ynrialion, 1( .20  fed.

Colt   revolver : 699,  729, 70H , 73 ., 718, 7;3:3 , 700,  743, 7 8, 730:

mean 722.7  feet·  mean Yarialion, 12.9G  feet.



III.-Penet1·atiuH anc1  Recoil.


Find the penetration and  recoil by mea n s of  the pendulum recoil frames.    As  uo suitable pendulum  recoil   f rames were available, the board decid ed  to omit. this  test.   The t heoretical recoil for  the


revolvers computed by  means of  the formula cr v  w       (page 112 ,

2 W

Report Chief  of  Ordnance, 1878) is a. fol1ows :  ,’mith ..’Yesson,

2.1889  foot  pounds; Colt, 1.8516  foot pound . . Th e  theoretical recoil for  the  Colt  service .45 caliber is 3.80  foot  pounds.





IV.-Tests  for  Accuracy.

(1)  Fire   ten   rounds  from   a  fixed   rest   at   a  target    distant twenty-five yards.

(2)  Fire ten  rounds  from   a  fixed  rest   at  a  target  distant 100 yards.

(3)  Find   the  mean  absolute   deviation in  each  case. The  revolvers were  operated by 11r. R. T. Hare.























Smith & Wesson …. . Colt ……………….










In ches.













Smith &’ Wesson …. . Colt ……………… .
















In these  tests, two  bullets  from    the    Colt  revolver  keyholed badly.


V. Penet1 ation  in  Pine  Butts.

Fire five rounds into  pine  butts   distant 100  yards,  and  take  a mean  of  the five penetrations.

Mean  of  Five   Penetrations.

Smith  & Wesson  revolver, 3t inches; Colt revolver, 3! inches.




VI.  -Rapidity of  Loading , Firing, and  Ejecting.

(Revolvers operated by Mr. R.  T. Hare.)

Find the  time  required to  fire  eighteen rounds, commencing and ending with the chambers empty.

Smith  & Wesson  revolver, 0 minutes 52       seconds.

Colt revolver, one minute thirteen seconds.

Twenty rounds  were fired  from  the  Smith   & Wesson  revolver in fifty-four seconds.








TESTS OF  JIILITA.RY  REVOLVERS.                                87



VII. –Endu1’ance.

Fire   250  rounds, allowing   the  revolver  five  minutes       to  cool after  every fifty rounds.                                  (Revolvers operated by Mr. R. T. Rare.) COLT REVOLVER. -Early in the  test the rebound spring proved too weak always   to  turn the trigger  forward after the  discharge







Fig. 64.-Lieut. Sumner Paine, :Boston.            Amateur Pistol and  Revolver Shot.




of  the  revolver.    In a  large  number of  cases  the  trigger had  to be  pushed  forward  by  the  fingers.   Otherwise revolver worked well.

SMITH & WESSON REVOLVER. -On the 104th round, the  hand would  not  revolve   the  cylinder, the  mechanism being   clogged with  fouling.   The   cylinder was  slipped   off and  wiped  and  re-





placed,  when  the  revolver worked  perfectly.    The  same  difficulty occurred  on the  1-±0th round.   The  cylinder  was removed   as  be­ fore,  and   the  clogged   parts  more  caref ully  mped  than  in   the preceding instance, when  the  reYolver  worked   well  duTing  the remainder of  the  test.



VIII. –Fouling .

Let   the revolyer remain   forty-eight  hours   without cleaning; after  which fire fifty round     allowing  it five minutes to cool after the  twelfth, twenty-f ourth, and  thirty-sixth rounds.

.::lfiTH & 1\Esso RE\OLY”ET{.-Cylinder clogged as in preced­

ing  test, and would not revolYe.    It was slipped  off as before  and wiped  off, a\Yas the  rear   of  barrel.      During the  remainder of the test  the reyolver  worked  w·ell.

COLT RE\OL\ER. -The rebound  spring ‘ ould not turn the trig­ ger fonyard during the opening rounds of each series.   One fail ure of  the  cylinder   to  revolve  occurred.   The  revolver was  opened and shut again  by the  operator, when  the cylinder  re”,’olved freely.





(1)  The  revolver to  be  cal’efully  cleaned  nod  then  shaken   in fine du  t  after  which  it  is  brushed   off with  the  hand  and  fired twelYe rounds.

(2)  l)usL  again  in  the  san1e manner: iu  order  to ascertain the

combined  effects of  dusting and fouling;  then  fire six rounds. milh  & “\\'”esson reyohrer. -(1)  In two instances it was neces­

sary  to  giy·e an  extra pull   to  the  trigger   to  make  the  cylinder revolve.

(2)  The  reYolve r worked  well.

…., olt reYolver.-(1)  At  the sixth round   the re\olyer refused   to work a   a double-action reYolver, and it w·as necessary  to cock the hammer by hand.                            .

(2)  Revolv·er still disabled  as a double-action revolyer, but could

be worked  by cocking  hatnm er w·ith band.     In several iustances the  cylinder  would not  reYolvc without  considerable assistance.



:X. -Rust.

(1)  After  cleaning, rernoYe all  oil and immerse in a solution  of sal-ammoniac for  ten  minutes, and  expose  for forty-eight hours.


TESTS FOR  1lllLITARY  REVOLVERS.                        89


(2)  Fire  twelve rounds.

(3)  ‘Vith out  cleaning,  l oad  the  revolver  and  immerse  f or  ten minutes as before, and again expose for forty-eight  hours.

(4)  Fire  eigh teen round  .

(5)  Distnount,  examine,  and clean .

Both  revolvers  were  boiled  in a solution  of potash  to remove oi1, and left over night  to dry.                          They  were then  rus te<l as ahove.






Fjg. 65.-Mr.llenjamin Djmock, HaverbiJl, Mass.              Alllatcur 1,istol Shot.




Smith & Wesson  revolver.-On taking  the revolver out of  the

· solution,  the mainspring  was found  to  be  broken.    ‘rhe revolver

was well rusted.     Considerable  rapping  wit.h a mallet was neces­

sary to make the  barrel catch  and cylinder hook operate,  and  th e





safety   lever  would   not   perform  its  functions until   after  some amount  of   manipulation.    The   mainspring  was   replaced    by another one,  and   twelve   rounds were  fired   from   the  revolver without difficulty.

Colt revolver. -The revolver was found   to be well rusted, but

the  mechanism operated freely, and  the  twelve  shots  were fired without the use   of  the  mallet   being   necessary.   The  cylinder had to be assisted   to revolve  once,  and  the  rebound spring failed to push the  trigger forward three  times.

The  revolvers were not  loaded  before  the  next  immersion, on

account   of  the   danger involved ,  and   instead of  plugging   the chambers with  corks  as  before, empty  cartridge shells  were  in­ serted.   Both  revolvers were  thoroughly,  rusted  when  taken   out of  the solution.

Smith    &  Wesson    revolver.-The   barrel        catch    was  tightly

cemented, and  opened  only after  long-continued efforts.     The hammer would  not  operate, and on  taking off  the  side plate and a half stock, the  mainspring (a new one, replacing the one broken in  the  first  part   of  the  test)   was  found  to  be  broken.  It  was replaced    by  a  new  one.    The  firing-pin   spring  and   pin  were tightly  rusted, so that   the spring would not  operate   to return the pin.    The  hand  would  not  revolve  the  cylinder, and  on  further inspection  it was found that  the  trigger  spring was broken.

lore   than  an    hour  a.nd  a    half    was  consu1ned    in  trying    to

operate    this   revolver.    As  much   of  the  rust   as   possible  was rubbed off  with  rags,  and  water  was used  upon  it  freely, but  all efforts  proving fruitless, the revolver was laid aside as disabled.

Colt revolveT. –The  cylinder   could   not   be  swung   outwards without aid  from  the  blows  of  a mallet.     Cartridges  could  not be inserted until  the chambers were  cleaned from  rust.     Eighteen rounds  were fired without much  difficulty, using the  revolver  as a double-action revolver.   The  rebound spring  failed  to  push  the trigger forward   in  every  case,  .and   had   to   be  assisted   by  the operator’s hand.    In  two cases  (ninth and tenth rounds) the  hand would. not revolve  the cylinder  without assistance.

Both  revolvers were  then  dismounted, examined , thoroughly cleaned,  and  assembled.


TESTS FUR  MILITARY  REVOLVERS.                        91







Sntith &  1Vesson  Re-,;olret.


Captain   Hall ,  in  his  letter, twice  spenks  of   this  reYolver  as having  a six-inch   barrel.                            The  manufnd urers  state   th at  a  five-  f.








Fig. 66. -l\f ajor Charles W. Hinman.  Revolver and Pistol Expert.




c.o model.     The  1nultiplicity  of  parts  and  their  niceiy   of  fit  make it  almost  impossible   for  any  one,  not  a  skilled  and  instructed

” inch  barrel  is  the  longest that  has  ever  been supplied with  this e-o m echanic,  to dismount and  assemble the  arm and  replace  broken parts, without marring or impailing ihe  arm.





On the other hand, the locating the hammer and lock mechanism entirely within  the frame, renders the arm less liable  to accidental injuries, and the  parts  from  clogging  frmn  dust  and rust. The  cylinder  is easily  removed  and  replaced, and  the  parts  where fouling   accumulates are  easily accessible.   The  revolver stood all the  tests  very  well, up  to  the  last  rust  test; and  with  the  most ordinary care a revolver  could be prevented from  becoming  rusted to  such  an  extent.  In this  test, however, the  arm  was  totally disabled.   Two   mainsprings  were   broken   in   this   test,   which would seem  to imply  that their  temper was too high.

Great  stress   has  always  been  laid  upon  certain defects  in  the Smith   &  Wesson   system   which  would   develop   especially  in  a military  ann.   A revolver board, convened in 1876,  speaks  of  the system  thus: “The efficiency of  a.ny revolver of  this  model must depend  in great   measure upon  the accuracy  with  which  its  joints are made and  broken.   Certain  distances must  not only be made exact, but  must  remain invariable, and  it  is  believed   impossible to  preserve the  latter  condition with  the  rough  usage of  the ser­ vice.”   The  Smith  & Wesson  revolver tested   by this  board failed in the rust  test, and  the  report  goes on to say:  “The severe  rust­ ing test,  given  by the  board,  resulted  in showin g  how readily  this model may become  unserviceable , and  this  test is not  regarded  as a more  severe trial  of  the arm  thau  would  frequently IJe  expt ri­ enced  in the service.”

Captain Hall  makes  the following special  claims for  the ann:­

(1)  A  revolver cocked  with  the forefinger has  a  great   advan­ tage  over  one   cocked  with   the  thumb.  In cocking  a  revolver with  the  thumb, its position· in the hand  is rendered very insecure at   the  instant  the  thumb is  changed   from  the  hammer to  the stock, and  this  insecurity is  so  increased in  cold  weather as  to render  a premature discharge probable, and  greatly diminish the rapidity and  accuracy  of  fire.

The  board  thinks that   these   points  seem to be well  taken, and certainly Captain Hall’s reputation as an expert pistol shot  should give   his  opinion   great   weight.      This  claim  will  apply  equally well to the  Colt, as it is a double-action revolver.

(2)  The   Smith   & Wesson   revol·rer   under   discussion   has  an

advantage over all  other  revolvers cocked  with  the forefinger, in the fact  that   there  is an indication in  the  pull which  informs  the shooter when  the  cartridge is  to  be struck.   This  new and  novel


TESTS FOR MILITARY  REVOLVERS.                                93


device  renders this revolver equal,  if not  superior, to all  others,


even as a target  pi tol.

The board   con<‘urs  with   Captain  IIall   in

indicatiou iu  t h e pull is a decided  advantage.



thinking  that    this








Fig.:Gi.-Sergt. J. J.l\Iountjoy, Philadelphia, Penu .  Amateur Pistol Shot.




(3)  The  revolver has  also  a safety  device  in  the  stock  which prevents it frmn  being fired unless the  handle  is grasped.

The  board  recognizes the  advantage of  the  safety  device,  but thinks  that  by its use accidents will only  be partially avoided.     A great  number  of premature discharges take  place when the  handle of  the  revolver is grasped  by the soldier.

The workmanship of  the revolveT leaves  nothing to be desired,

and  the  accuracy  of  shooting is  most  satisfactory.      Whether it

will stand the  rough usage of the service, is another question, and





in this  connection Captain Hall  states he  bas  had  two  of  these arms  for  more  than  a  year,  ” fired  2,000  or  3,000  rounds f rom them , and  snapped them over  5,000 thnes, wiLhout either  getting out  of  repair  a single   time, and  has  carried   them on  his  saddle in the field for  two  mon ths of  the  time.”                             The  cartridges used worked   well   in                             every  respect, and     have    the   great   advantage of  having the  lubrica nt covered   by the  cartridge shell  instead of

being placed  on the  exposed  portion of  the  bullet.


Colt  Revolver .


This   revolver bas   the  great  advantage of  possessing  a  solid frame, and   this   is  combined with   the  feature of  simultaneous e jection  of  cartridges, though   the e jection  is not  automatic, as in the Sm ith & Wesson.  The  principal defect  developed  in this  arm was  the  weakness of  the  rebound spring,  which  in  many  cases would  not  turn the triger forward af ter the  rlischarge  of  the re­ volver.    The  substit ution of  a stronger spring or  the addition of a strain  screw  would  remedy  this defect.    Several  fail u res of  the hand   to revolve  the cylinder  were noted , and  on dis1nounting the revolver  a large  a1nount of  dirt  and fouling was found  in one case between  the  band  and  hand  sp ring.

This revolver  does not possess  the safety  device  of  the Smith  & Wesson , and  is thereby more liable  to accidental discharges when the  handle is not  grasped in the hand.     It lacks  the  hammerless feature of  the  Smith   & \Vesso n, but  in spite  of  the  ha1nmer not being  located   entirely within  the fran1e, it showed  a decided superiority in the rust   test.    l\foreover, h aving  a  hamrner , it can be used  as a single-action  revolver when  its  double-a cting  m ech­ anisn1 is disabled, as  shown  in  i.he  ” dust  test,” and  the  board thinks  this  a  decided   advantage.    There  are   no  very  delicate parts, and  suitable provisions are  tnade  against  accidents.   Th e cylinder   cannot    be  swung   oul\Yarcls unless   the   han1mer  is  at safety, and  the  trigger  and  bmnn.1er are locked  unless  ihe  cylinder is in the  proper  position  for  firing.    The  hand  hold s  the cylinder after   it  has  reached   its  position   f or  firing   unlil  the  ann is dis­ ch arged,  ihu · acting  a:a stop  bolt  and  preventing  carrying by.

‘               In accuracy   the  revolver sho,v·ed  itself  inf e1ior to  the  Smith   &

\Vesson , and two of  th e bullets  fired k eyholcd , one  at twenty-five

yards’ distance.

The  an1mnniiion  used,  the  board  co nsiders  to be greatly inferior


TESTS FOR MILITARY  REVOLVERS.                                95


to that  used in the Smith  & Wesson  revolver.   The  outside  lubli­ cation  used  on  the  bullets  was  productive of  much  fouling, and there  wa.   great  difficulty at  t?-mes  in  forcing the  cartriclge    into the  chan1ber .    The  board  very  much  prefer    a cartridge where the lubricant is covered  by the case.




The  board would  . tate  that  the  Smith   & Wesson  revolver  has passed  all  ihe  t est s sati. factorily exce pt  the  rust   test,  in  which it was totally  disabled.   Th e Colt  revolver has  passed  all  the  tests satisfactorily except   t.he dust  test,  in which  it was  disablecl  as  a double-act.ion   revolver,  but   could   be   work ed    atisfacto rily   by cocking   the   hmnn1er  as  in   a single-action revolver.  Whether these  arm   have the  necessary stopping power,  the board  has no means  of  determining.    The   board  i  of  the  opinion  that   the issue  of  a limited  nmnber  of  each of  these  arms  would be advan­ tageous, as  affording   a  comparison  between  the   double-acting system  and  the   ingle-action system  in use in  the service.  Each of   the  revolvers possesses  advantages  peculiar   to  it ·elf , and  a competitive  test   in  service   would   be   necessary   to  determine definitely  which is the superior.



N .ATIONAL ARMORY, SPRINGFIELD, Mass.,  June 22, 1889.

The  board  n1et at the call of the president at 10 A. 1\I.      Present, both  the n1en1bers.    The  double-action .38 caliber, navy  revolver, previously tested  and reported upon by the  board, was re  ubtnitted by the  Colt’s   Patent  Firearms nianufacturiug Co1npaoy, with  a request that  it  be  tested  for  accuracy   with  the  new  .3.n  caliber long   Colt’s   central-fire  cartridges, manufactured by  the  Union

:11etallic  Cartridge  C01npany, Bridgeport, Conn., the   lubricant

being  placed  iu cannelures covered  by the cartridge shell; 150 of the  e  cartridge   were  furnished with  the  revolver.   A  stronger rebound  sp ring had  been substituted for  the one  previou  ly used in the  revolver, as recommended by the  board; ihi” wa   the only altera tion  made.    The  revolver  was  subjected to  the  usual  test for  accuracy, as follows:-



(1)  Fire  ten  rounds  from  a fixed rest  at a target  uistant twenty­

five yards.





(2)  Fire ten  rounds from  a  fixed  rest  at  a  target distant 100 yards.

(3)  Find  the  mean  absolute deviation in each case.

The  revolvers were operated by Mr. R. T. Hare, and  two targets of ten shots each were taken at each  range.     The targets compared as follows with  those  made in  the  previous test, when  cartridges with  outside lubrication were  used .






Q)..t…’. .l………

O Q)

……. O ‘””‘

Q) c;!






r:ll  0 .

;;l       r:ll

……   <l)



·o r:ll


oo rn

……   0 0

‘”d ,.q






……0 0



g’ o

























1.46    I








‘       1.13










[18 grains powder, 150-grain bullet in both tests.]







……          0

r:ll r:ll






May 2.Cartridges with outside lubrication Jun e   22.     Cartridges

with  inside  lubri-

cation           .      .

1st target .   . .

2d target





RANG E, 100 Yards.




:May 2.Cartridges with

outside lubrication          4.88

June 22.     Cartridges with  inside  lubri-

8                 10.11




cation      . .  .  .  .    3.68              2.14              4.46              3.58              8.50

1st target .             2.80             3.29              4.71             3.44              7.60

2d target     .  . . .




During the test the  revolver worked well in every particular, and no  keyholing  of  bullets was   observed.   The   substitution  of  a stronger  rebound spring did  not   seem   to  app_recia bly  increase the trigger pull.    By an in spection  of the  targets  made, it appears that  the accuracy  at twen ty-five yards  is about the san1e as in the previous test.     The  accuracy  at  100 yards, however, shows  a de­ cided  improvement , and this  though the conditions of  tiring  were rather unfavorable, a fresh breeze  blowing  during the practice.


T.ARGET    REVOLVERS.                                    97













THERE is  no  difference  between   the  military   and  the target revolver, excepting the sights and  the  trigger  pull. The  target revolver generally shoots  the same ammunition; but  by the fine  sights  at  the muzzle end, a wind  gauge  at the breech, and  a smooth, light  trigger pull, the  marksman is greatly aided in doing fine shooting.

Nearly  all  revolvers and  pistols  have  sights  affixed  to




the barrels, which are very properly  supposed  by purchasers to aid them in hitting the object at which  they  shoot.     In many  cases  the  sights  on  pistols  and  revolvers are  very little, if any, aid to the shooter.    Persons unfanuliar with these  fil’earms, when  they  test a  new  pistol  or  revolver, generally commence  by  aiming  at   the  object  desired  to hit ; and if their  holding  is good, they  are likely to find the shots  grouped  quite  a distance  above  the object  aimed at. The heavier the charge  and lighter the arm, the greater the flip or kick-up.     The shooter, when  he observes  this result, generally corrects  the  fault by holding   under   the  object, and  some  wonderfully good  shooting  has  been  done  by aiming  eighteen  or  twenty inches   under   the   target  or bullseye.    Good shooting under  the  above  conditions however, is generally at  known  distance  with  some guide below the  bullseye  to  enable  the  marksmen  to  gauge  the amount  of allowance  regularly.When  Chevalier  Ira  Paine   gave  his first  exhibition of revolver  shooting at fifty yards,  at the range  of the  Massa­ chusetts Rifle  Association,  he  fired  a  few  sighting  shots before  commencing   his   100   shots,   and   found   that   his elegant   .44  caliber  Russian   model  Smith   &  Wesson   re-








Fig. 6.-  Ten shots at 12% yards with .22. caliber Gould   model Stevens;pistol, by Mr. W. E. Carlm, New,;York.






Fig. 69.-Six shots at twelve  yards with .44 caliber Smith & Wesson revolver, round bullet, by Mr. W. E. Carlin, New York.








Fig. 70.-Two scores of six shots each,  at twelve  yards, with .44 caliber Smith &

Wesson  revolver, by l\Ir. W. E. Carlin, New York.


TARGET  REVOLVERS.                                            99


volver, which was perfectly sighted for about  t\velve yard  , when using  the light  loads and round ball, with the heavy,








Fig. 71.-Mr. E. E. Patridge.   Winner of  Boston Athletic  Revolver and  Pistol

Championship, 1892.





or  full  charge,  sho t  eighteen   inches  over   the   bullseye. He asked  permission to  place a spot some distance  below the   bullseye, which  was  given ;  but as  he  had  only  a







few sighting shots to judge the difference in the elevation between   the   two  cartridges, he   did   not  score  what   he proved   he  was  capable  of  doing  at  a  second  exhibition. In  his second  trial  he used  the  same  revolver  but  with  a different sight, which  enabled   him  to aim  directly at  the bullseye.

I have  witnessed    considerable  revolver   shooting,   and not  a  little in  a  section   of  this  country where  the  arm was  carried for  protection.   After   many  practice  shoots I have  heard  shooters remark,  “Any one  of  these  shots would  have  hit  a man”; thus   the  writer   formed   the im­ pression   that    many   persons    who   carry   revolvers   are content with  an arn1 which,  when fired, would hit  the size of a  man.    On  the  supposition  that   this is the  case, it is not strange that  so  little has  been done until recently to improve  the accuracy  of the revolver  by correctly  sighting it.     The sights  which are attached  to some revolvers shoot over from  six  to thirty inches  when  fired from twenty to

sixty yards.     If  the  charge  is  much  reduced   the  sights ·

which come on the revolver  can  be used in ·aiming directly at the  object  desired  to hit; but with a full,  heavy  charge the  over-shooting mentioned is experienced.

The   accompanying    illustrations  show,  approximately,




the  difference   required  in  shooting  a  Smith   &  Wesson Russian                  model   .44   caliber revolver   with  a  light   and  a heavy  charge.Fig.  72  shows  the   target

sight  which is attached to this revolver  when purchased.                    If

a sight   of this  height  is used



Fig. 72.

with  the full  charge  at  fifty yards,    and   a       sight         taken


on   the    bullseye   at   s1x   o’clock,    if   held    properly,   the


TARGET  REVOLVERS .                                101


bullet will strike  about eighteen  inches over  the bullseye. The same result  will be experienced  with  the  plain, open sight  which comes on this  favorite   arm, as  well  as  with most of the other revolvers of American make of large cali­ ber.    If, however, the shooter desires to use a light  charge of ten  to fifteen  grains  of  pow·der, he  will  find this sight approximately  correct  in  regard  to  height.    As  many of

the finest  shots  prefer  to use  the full charge, desiring  to   ·

practice  with  a practical  charge, such  as they would  use in warfare or defense, and knowing  that, if properly  held, it will give fine results, they procure another sight, similar in shape, but higher, as shown in Fig. 73.     This additional height depresses  the   muzzle

of the barrel, and counteracts


the flip or kick-up, and the shooter  can sight   directly  at the  bullseye  at a  distance  of

fifty yards.






, .:.::::::::…. ………………….W:::::::_:. ..,_:::::

)…………………... …………….. . ..   I


::.  ……………….

..     ..


The  front   sight    most    fa­

vored by expert  shots  at  the

::::::::::::::;:::::::::::::::::.::::  ::::;:::.: ..

( c;::,”-·-“··” -‘·”‘-‘”·’·'””‘”-‘·· —



present  time for target  shoot­

ing, is shown in Figs. 72 and


Fig. 73.



73, and the rear sight as shown in Fig. 74.    The)latter has a semicircular  notch  to draw the top of the front  sight into.

This    style    of   sight was  adopted     by  Messrs.   Smith    &


•·*-    ,i,.


W.esson, it giving  the  effect  of  a  pin­

head  sight.     Some good  shots prefer  a


.·.. ..:·    ”      ‘”‘  ‘           fine,   plain    front  sight,  with   a  square




‘                      top, and  some use  a straight bar with-


out  a notch, but sight.

a  platinum  line in the center  for  a  rear


There  is an ivory  bead front  sight  adapted  to revolver made  by   Mr.   William   Lyman, of  Middlefield,   Conn., which  is  highly  commended  by those who have  used  it,





this   sight   being  especially  recommended  for   hunting pistols.     It is shown  in accompanying illustration.







Fig. 75. -Lyman Ivory Tipped Front Si ght for pistols or revolvers.




An improvement in  the rear sight is made  by dovetail­ ing  a  lateral   sliding bar across  the barrel clu tch  of  the Smith  &  Wesson   revolvers, which   m akes   an  eff ective wind  gauge.    Those   desiring to tst  the  accuracy of  re. volvers  at  a  rest can  do so very eff ectually by attaching to  the  rear  sight a  piece  of  thin metal, to  convert  tLe semicircle notch  into  a round  aperture, which  with  a tem­ porary  aperture front  sight, or the  pin  head sight, enables the  tester to obtain  a clear  sight, which  is quite  difficult when  shooting in  this  manner  a t rest  with open  front and rear  sights, which  are so n ear  together.

The sights I have  here  described are  only fit  for fine

target shooting ; they  would  no t be suitable for a military or  even  a  pocket   revolver.    For such  arms,  plain, solid sights are  recommended, such as are not likely to interf ere in drawing pistol or revolver from a holster  or a pocket.

There  are several  ways of taking sight with a pistol  or a revolver.  It is  believed  that  a majority  of   the  best shots draw  a  very  fine  bead  on  the f ront-sight, and  touch  the object   aimed at,  at  the lower part of  the  bullseye  at  six o’clock.    Other   good  shots   pref er  to place  the  sight  on the  object, or  on  the  bullseye, while   still    others  place the  sight over  the  object  or  the   bullsey e,   and  see  the


T.d.RGET   REVOLVE RS.                                103



tip   at   twelve    o’clock.    It    is  believed   that    those  who sight   at        the lower or          bottom   of         the  object  aimed  at,








Fig. 76.-Dr. Louis Bell.   Amateur Revolver and P1stol Sl1ot.   First winner of

Winans’ trophy with revolver.  New York, 1892.





possess  more  advantages; but  the shooter  should   try  the several   ways,  and,  as  soon  as  satisfied   of  his preference, adhere   firmly to  one  manner   of  sighting, if  permissible. It will  be found that   different n1akes and  lots  of  ammu-




















Fig. 77.-Ten shots at fifty yards by Mr. H. S. Harris.            Shot at Walnut Hill, Mass, Dec. 31, 1890, with a Stevens Pistol, Diamond model with a ten-inch .22

caliber barrel.  Ammunition, U. M. C. Co.’s long-rifie.









Fig. 78.-Ten shots at fifty  yards by Mr. H. S. Harris.            Shot at Walnut Hill, Mass., Jan. 6, 1894, with a Stevens Diamond Model Pistol with a ten-inch barrel and  U. M. C. Co. .22 caliber, long-rifle cartridges.






Two of  the  best  known ten  shot scores at fifty yards with pistol on Standard

American target.   Targets reduced to one  quarter original size.


TARGET  REVOLVERS.                                 105


nition    vary  considerably,  affecting  elevations;     different weather  conditions  also  affect                   elevations.       This  will  be







Fig. 79.- Position adopted in Pistol Firing by Mr. Henry S. Harris, Pistol

Champion of Massachusetts, 1893.




perceived with a few shots, and the error corrected  by tak­

ing a finer_or coarser sight.





There is  also  made  by Messrs. Smith &  Wesson  a rear elevating and  wind  gauge  sight  for pistols  and  revolvers, which  is a great  improvement over  any  heretofore  placed on   the   market.  It  seems   to   be   a   difficult    thing  to perfect  a revolver sight, as several  firms who have been endeavoring to  accomplish  it for  some  time  past  know. With heavy  charges   it is  desirable   to depress   the  barrel or   lower   the   elevation, rather  than   raise;  while   with light   charges,   as  you   increase   your   distance,  you   are obliged  to raise your  rear sight.     A very  high _ front sight, which is necessary for the large charges, is considered  un­ symmetrical by manufacturers; and  until some ingenious person  devises a means  of  raising  and  lowering the front sight of a revolver, the  person who desires  to shoot  several kinds   of  ammunition accurately  in  one  revolver, and  at various  distances, must  carry about  with  him several front sights  of  various  heights  which  will interchange.


POCKET REVOLVERS.                                         107














A POCKET revolver, as  the  name  implies,  is  a revolver possessing sufficient  compactness to be carried with con­ venience in  the  pockets  of  one’s clothing.    There  are  but few concerns  in  America   manufacturing large  revolvers, but  many  produce  what  is classed  as a pocket  revolver.

For many years an impression  prevailed that all revolvel’s were  inaccurate, pocket  revolvers   especially  so.    Several years   ago  I undertook to   prove  that   American   marks­ men  could   shoot  revolvers about  as   accurately as  they could some of the  most famous  dueling pistols  of  home or foreign  manufacture.

I think   I hazard  little in  claiming   all I undertook to do was accomplished. At  the beginning of my work ‘ there were two revolvers-the Smith and Wesson and  the Colt,­ which  were as perfect  in construction as it seemed  possible

to make by the  highest  mechanical  skill, and  which, in the

opinion  of  firearm  experts, possess  special  points of merit

for special work.     These  two makes of  revolvers, in large calibers, .44 and  .45, in my opinion,  are  the  highest  types of this class  of firearms  in the  world.

At  the  time I commenced my investigations, ammunition for these  revolvers  was much  inferior  to what  it  is  at  the present  time.     The  old outside  lubricated  cartridges have given  place largely to those  of inside lubrication, and  thus the even distribution of lubricant has increased the accuracy of the revolvers using  them.

With  the  improvement in cartridges, the skill  of marks-





men  developed, until,  at  the  present   time,  there  are, in

America,  amateur revolver shots  from l\1aine to California,






Fig. 80.-Fi.fty cousecuti’\'”e shots at twel\e yards. by-an ordinary marksman,

with a Smith & 1\es..ou .38 caliber Pocket ReT”olT”er, 3L4 inch barrel,

1;. M. C. Co., ammunition.




who possess  skill   of the  highest order revolvers of

.44 and  .45 caliber.

It has been sho-wn that   both  revolver   and  ammunition of large caliber are accurate.   But is the  pocket revolver accurate and  reliable ?    Many who  are  forced by the fine


POOKET  REVOLVE RS.                                           109


shooting  of  the  large   revolvers   to  admit   their   accuracy, still  insist  that the small  revolvers,-pocket revolvers, – are  inaccurate, and  it is  impossible  to do  fine work  with them.

I long ago gave a very thorough test  to pocket revolvers, but  hesitated to  chronicle   my  results,  as  I hoped  for  an opportunity to compare  others’  work  with   my own bef ore so doing.     While  gathering material  for  this volume I had the  co-operation   of a number of  gentlen1en  interested in pistol  shooting, which has  enabled   m e  to  com pare  their views  with  my  own,  and  a  so1newhat  extended  test   of various  pocket   revolvers   has  furnished what  seems  to be instructi ve data  for  those interested in these  arms.

My first  ol?ject was to learn definitely what should con­

stitute a pocket  revolver. It was found that  if those arms which  could  be carried  in  the  pocket  were  reorganized as such,  there  would  be certain  arms called  pocket  revolvers which  would  give  special  advantages to  those  who com­ peted  with such  arms in contests  of  skill.  It is known  to those f amiliar  with   revolver shooting that  it is  easier  to shoot  accurately a heavy  revolver with a light  charge  and a long  barrel, than  with  a heavy  charge  in a light  arm and a short   barrel.     The  first  arm  is  the  more  accurate, and easier  to do fine work with.

It should   here  be stated that  a pocket   revolver should be  kept   in  the  list of  practical weapons.     It is chiefly  a weapon  of  defense, and  proficiency  with  it is  desirable  to give greater protection to the individuals possessing it.  I would  like  to  emphasize  the word practical ; for as I look back and see how the  uses  of large  caliber  revolvers have been  misapplied, I feel  that  revolver shooting to-day  is, to a great  extent, misrepresentation.  There  are many exceedingly fine shots  posing before  the  world  as  expert revolver  shots,  who have  gained   their   reputations wholly





by  shooting  tiny   charges   of  powder  and  a  light    bullet from  an arm  originally made for a practical charge.     Such shooting, I have often stated, in  my opinion, should  always be classed  as pistol  shooting, and  revolver  shooting reco ­ nized  only   when   shot  with   ammunition  for  which   the revolver is made  and  within  a specified  time.

I   believe,   if   pocket-revolver    shooting     is    to    become

popular,  if there  are  to  be “contests of skill  with  that  arm, there  should   be clear  and  explicit  understanding of what constitutes  such  an  arm.     I can  perceive,   at   this  time, that  this is no easy task; and if this question is now settled it will not  be  likely to  be adhered  to, for  with  many  the practicability of  such  an  arm  would  not  be  considered if an advantage could  be  secured in a departure  enabling a _ target shooter  to make  a higher  score.

The  most  important points  to  determine are  the  maxi­ mum length of barrel, the  weight  of the arm, the  minimum bore. allowed,  and  the ammunition permitted.

The   question of   the  length of   barrel  is  an  important

one.     It is generally known    that  every  quarter inch of  a revolver   barrel,  up  to  the  length it is  possible  to use, is advantageous.  It      is            therefore a      question of         how  long can a barrel   be, and  the arm carried  in the  pocket.      At  a meeting of       most of       those  who shoot   pistols  and  revolvers in  Boston   and  vicinity, it  was  unanimously  the  opinion that  no longer  barrel  than four inches should  be permitted; a  majority  favored   that   length of        barrel  as a  maximum,

and   I recommend   such.     A  barrel   3t inches  in length

is  preferred  by  some,  as   being   easier   to   carry   in   the pocket.                Below  3t inches  the  loss  in  accuracy   and   the unreliability is quickly apparent.

The  bore of  a pocket  revolver  is about  as important as the length of  barrel.     Here  is where  the  practicability of the   pocket   revolver is  made  conspicuous. It  does  not


POCKET  REVOLVERS.                                     111



matter   how  large  a  bore  is  permitted, for  the  length of barrel and  limit  of  weight  will, to a  great  extent, govern that  question; but  it is important to establish  a minimum










Fig.St.-Fifty consecutive shots at twelve yards, by  fr. W. W. Bennett, with a

Smith & Wesson Pocket Revolver, .38 caliber, 3%, inch  barrel, U. M. C. Co. ammunition.





of  bore.    Some marksmen,  with  an inclination to  jockey­ ing,  might   select  a  .22  caliber  revolver  in  the  heaviest frame  permitted, with  the  maximum  length of  barrel,  and perhaps  thus  gain  an  impractical but  advantageous arm





for  target  practice, but  a  very  poor weapon  for  defense. There   are   a  number   of   pistol   shooters  who   advocate making   the  minimum  caliber  .38, but  I think   a  majority prefer  .32 caliber.

My own opinion,  on the  question of calibers,  is that  .38 is  the  more  practical caliber,  but  .32 is  an  arm easier  to shoot,  and  the  average   person  can make  finer scores with the latter.   .

The  weight  of  an  arm  must  be considered; chiefly  to guard  against   that    intolerable  nuisance,    the   shooting jockey.     He  might  resort   to  the  questionable  practice  of cutting  off  the  barrel   of  a   .32-.44   Smith   &   Wesson Russian   model   revolver,   or   even   the  full   .44   Russian model, and  use  the  light   gallery  loads, and  thus  have an accurate target  revolver, but  a  very  unwieldy pocket revolver.

The  heaviest   revolver  which  would  properly  be classed as  a  pocket   revolver  is  the  Colt,  which  weightwenty­

three   ounces ;  this  arm  has  a  barrel   3t inches  long.     I

think this should  be the limit of weight  permitted, though some claim  the  weight  should   be extended to twenty-five ounces      to   permit   a  four-inch  barrel   in   this   make   of revolver.

In   regard    to  ammunition, I     think   none  but   factory

cartridges should   be  permitted, for  the  reason  that  light loads  are  likely  to  be  used  in  reloaded   cartridges.   Pro­ vision  also should  be made to prevent the use of a reduced factory cartridge.   I can  foresee  that,  if shooting with  a pocket   revolver   becomes  popular,  there  would  be  a  call for  gallery   loads  in  .32  and  .38 ·caliber ; and  when  re­ sponded   to,  the   gallery   hero  would   shoot   persistently, until  a phenomenal score was made, which  would  be held up  for  the  inspection  of  the  world  as what  can  be  done with  a pocket  revolver.


POCKET REVOLVERS.                                   113



A well made revolver is a safe, accurate, and  reliable weapon  in the  hands  of  a  cool  person.   An  element of danger exists always with excitable persons who handle firearms, and a short-barreled pistol  or revolver is more dangerous than any other  firearm, when carelessly handled.








Fig. 82.-Mr. F. 0. Young.        Pistol and Revolver Sbot, San Francisco, Cal.





A  first-class  revolver   is  a  safe  weapon   to   handle   by  a careful   person,  but  a  poorly  made  revolver   is  the  most dangerous of  all  firearms,  even  in  the  hands  of  careful persons.   It is a noticeable fact that the beautiful revolvers of  Smith   &  Wesson,   the  Colt  Company,  and  su ch  con­ cerns  bear  simply   the  names  of  the  makers; the  cheap, worthless  trash  are stamped  with  the  most  high-sounding





names   which  immediately brands   them  to  the  expert as worthless articles.

In   looking  over   the   various\   American  revolvers,  I could  find none   I considered worth    testing but   of   the following  make : Smith   &  Wesson, Colt’s   Patent  Fire­ arms Manufacturing Company,  American Arms  Company, Hopkins & Allen Manufacturing Co., Marlin Firearms Company,  and  John  P. Lovell  Arms  Company.

A  test  of  revolvers   produced by  the  above  manufact­ urers   was  conducted at  the  range   of  the  Massachusetts Rifle   Association  at   Walnut Hill, . under   the   following conditions : –



Five expert pistol shots  were engaged to do the shooting. The  distance at  which  the  arms  were shot  was twenty-five yards, and  the  target shot  on was  the center  of  the  100- yard  rifle target, with  the  bullseye  and  circles  out   to and including the  four  circle.     This  center   is thirteen inches in  diameter ;  but   believing that   the  revolvers would  be poorly sighted, it was thought  necessary to  have a  larger target to catch  the shots,  therefore this  center  was  pasted in the middle of a square  piece of pasteboard, in size 28 x 28 inches,  which  made   he whole   target the  same  size  as is used in pistol  and  revolver  shooting at  Walnut Hill,  at a range   of  fifty  yards.    Two  racks   were  used, into  which the  targets were  slipped,  enabling one  to  change  targets expeditiously.   Two  hundred  new targets on clean  pieces of pasteboard were arranged .for this  test, and  every  group of  shots  was fired at a clean  target.



The  question of  how  to  do the  shooting was submitted to the shooting experts.    Should   the shooting be done  at a rest, in such  manner  as  to make  known  the  possibilities of  revolvers and  ammunition;  or  should   it  be  done  in


POCKET REVOLVERS.                                          115


the usual off-hand style  as in matches? It was the opinion of  the  shooting experts that   the  latter mode  should   be adopted. It should   theref ore  be borne in mind  that   the results  represent both possibilities  of arms an d ammunition and  skill  of  the shooters ;  but  every  man  taking part  in






Fig. 83.-Fifty consecu tive shots atftwelvesa1·ds, by)Mr. ‘V.’1W. Bennett with a

Smith & Wesson Pocket Revolver, .38 caliber, 31j4  inch   barrel, U. ..l\’C. C. Co. ammunition.





the shooting possesses skill  sufficient   to shoot   frequently into  the  nin eties  in  ten shots  at fifty  yards  on  the  Stand­ ard  American  200-yard  rifle target, with  a pistol.





Two   days  were   taken  to  do   the  shooting, five  men shooting most of the .38  calibers, and four  the .32 calibers, a separate day  being  given  to each.

When    testing    the  revolvers,   the  arms  were  arranged

on  a  table.     On  a  bench   near   by  was  the  ammunition, supplied  by   the   three    different   companies ;  viz.,   the Union  Metallic   Cartridge Company,   Winchester  Repeat­ ing  Arms 9ompany, and  the  United  States Cartridge Company.

Each   company   manufacturing    the·revolvers    and    the

ammunition was  invited to  send  a  epresentative to wit­ ness  the  shooting, and  to  take   part  in  it.     Owing   to  a very  heavy  rain  on  the night before and  on  the morning of  the  test,  a number   of  those  invited failed   to  appear ; but  representatives from  the  Union   Metallio  Cartridge Company,       and   the   United  States   Cartridge  Company were present ;  the shooting expert  of  the  latter company assisting in  the  shooting, while the representative of  the Union       Metallic    Cartridge  Company   was   busy   making careful  notes.    There  were also present several expert rifle and  pistol  shots.     The  weather  conditions were  good  for shooting on both  days.                                                  –

After  an  explanation of  the  manner  of  eonducting the test   had   been  given,  a  .38  caliber   revolver  was   t ken from  the  lot  and  loaded  by the  one conducting the  test, and  handed   to one of  the shooters,  who did not know  the make of  ammunition he was shooting.   The shooter   pro­ ceeded  to the firing-point,  and  with  the  greatest care fired the five shots.     The  target was  then  removed,  brought to the shooting pavilion,  and  marked.    In  the meantime  the revolver  was carefully cleaned,  and  loaded  with  five shots of  another make of  ammunition.   The  shooter   then  fired five  more shots,  on a clean  target, after  which  the  target was  removed  and  marked,   the  pistol   again   loaded   and


POCKET  REVOLVERS.                                   117



charged with  another make  of  ammunition, and  shot   by the  same  marksman  for  a  third  time.    When   one  man had  shot  a certain make of  revolver five rounds  with  the












































Fig. 84.-Group of fifty con  e<‘utive shots at twelve yarus, witb   mitb & Wesson

.38 caliber Pocket Revolver, :P4 inch barrel.





diff erent  makes of a mmunition, that  arm  was put  into  the hands  of  another expert, and shot  by him the same  as the first man shot.    Thus the  line of revolvers  was tested; and had  it  not  been for  some  of  the  arms  being  withdrawn, each  man  would   have  fired   fif teen  shots  from  each  re­ volver,   or  105   shots  with   the .38   calibers,  making  a total of 525 shots  from the .38 caliber  revolvers.




There  were entered on the  list of the .88 calibers the following revolvers : –

Smith  & Wesson, single-action. ”        ”                  double-action.

Colt  double-action.

American Arms  Company,  single  and  double-action. Marlin,  double-action.

Lovell  (Swift), double-action.

In  .32  calibers:-

Smith  & Wesson,  single-action. ”       ”                  double-action.

American Arms  Company,  single  arid double-action.

Hopkins & Allen,  double-action.

Marlin  Patent Firearms Company,  double-action·

T’he action   of  the  Smith   & Wesson   revolvers  seemed perfect ; there was no accidental discharges, no puncturing of primers,  no keyholes  from  the shots, and  the  mechanism worked  perfectly.   They  were  distinguished for  beauty  of finish, symmetry, and  fine shooting qualities.

1″he Colt’s  Patent  Firearms Company  entered but  one

revolver, a .38  caliber  double-action, such  as is supplied to the police of a number of cities.  This arm shot well through­ out  the test,  showing no faults  or defects  of any  kind.     It shot  well with  both long and short  cartridges.   There  was one  accidental pull-off,  wholly  the  fault   of  the  shooter. It possesses  strength,  symmetry, and  first-class  shooting qualities.

It was  the    unanimous opinion   of   all  the  experts     in­

terested in this test,  that  the· above two makes of revolvers possess about   equal  merit, and  were entitled to be classed as No. 1 for excellence.

The  American   Arms  Company  revolver   is a well-made

arm, and  possesses a very  ingenious  mechanism.    It is an accurate shooting arm, but  was poorly sighted – so poorly


POCKET REVOLVERS.                                   119


that  by aiming at the bottom edge of the four-inch bullseye in the center  of  the large  target,  all  the  shots  could  not be kept  on the target; the front sight was not high enough to permit  aiming  at  an object  and  striking it or  near it.






Fig. 85.  Fifty  consecutive shots  at twelve  yards with  a .38 caliber Colt  pocket revolver, Police  Model.





The incorrect  sighting is a fault  easily remedied, but  the mechanism of the arm submitted was  faulty,  and  was the





chief cause of  its poor showing.     The  mechanism   is such that   by  pressing   the  trigger, it is  cocked,  and  a  second pressure  of the finger  releases the hammer.     If it is desired to use the arm as a double-action hammerless, a little stud,

‘vhich  projects  on the side  of the action, is set  over, and  by

pressing the trigger the arm is not cocked, but the concealed hammer  brought to  a  certain point; and as  soon as  this point  is passed, the arm is discharged.    In  the .32  caliber, the  mechanism  worked  perfectly, but in the .38 caliber  the discharge of a shot would frequently change the mechanism, and   when  attempting to  cock  the . revolver   by the  only way  provided  to do it,  the arm  would  be accidentally dis­ charged.   After  the  test  was  finished,  the  arm was  shot, and  by setting the stud at  each time  it was  jarred  out  of place, and  by aiming   fourteen inches  below  the  bullseye good targets were made.     With the above faults  remedied, the  revolver  would  undoubtedly be popular  with  many.

The  Hopkins & Allen  revolver  was entered by Hulbert

Brothers of New York.     There  was no .38 caliber  entered, the  arm  being  a  .32  double-action.   It  was  not  so          well made an  arm  as  the  previous  arms,  the  parts   bearing  no comparison   with   the  workmanship of a  Smith  & Wesson or  a       Colt             revolver,  and             it was    not    a    smooth-working revolver.    It was poorly sighted, shooting high and  to the left  of          the  bullseye  with all  the shooters.   But  with  the

I                               above faults, it shot  quite well and  regularly.

The  Marlin  revolvers, both in .32 and  .38 caliber, developed  serious  faults.  T ey were inferior  in workman­ ship  and  appearance to  the  Smith   &  Wesson  and  Colt revolvers, and   want  of  care  in their   manufacture   made them  positively  dangerous arms to handle.   From  the first to the last shot fired with both .32 and .38 caliber Marlin revolvers, the  nose of the  hammer  punctured the  primers of every cartridge of the  three  different makes.    This  per-


POCKET    REVOLVERS.                                  121


mitted  an escape of gas, and so  fouled   the  revolvers that they  would  not stand cocked.     As a result,  the  revolvers were accidently discharged as many  as  three  tin1es out  of five.    The  arms proved  to be so dangerous they  were not shot through the  test, and  those groups  recorded  represent, in some instances,  cartridges supplied  for those accidentally fired;   the five shots being fired to learn  the shooting  quali­ ties.     The  manufacturers claimed  after   the  test   that  the revolvers  were sent from the factory before being inspected by a competent  person that   the fault alluded   to ha.  been remedied.

The  Lovell   revolver appears   to     be  a  well-made  arm,

but it was discovered   to be too large  in  the  bore  to shoot any  of  the ammunition provided,  and  was ‘vitbdrawn.

In   the    tables  presented     herewith  will     be f ound   the



records  of  the  several  arms  tested,   with  descriptions of same.     The   results   should   not   be  9onsidered   as  repre­ senting the possibilities of    revolvers  and  ammunition, for skill    of   the  shooter  also  enters  into    the  result.   It    is possible to do much  finer shooting with  a pocket  revolver than  is here shorn, and  this  was vividly  illustrated a t the conclusion   of                       the  test  with                     the  .38 caliber, when  eachshooter   present  was  permitted to shoot  with  a  preferred

arm for  his own  satisfaction, and  finer targets than  those        ..

recorded  were often  made.

The  writer  carried  to the range,  on the day of the  tests, a Smith  &  Wesson single-action .38 caliber  revolver  with a  four-inch   barrel.     This  arm  was  perfectly sighted, and it was his intention to hold it in readiness to show  what a first-class pocket  revolver was capable  of doing.   An opportunity offered after   the  test   had  closed, and  one of the  shooters  was  invited  to  try  the  arm.     He  recorded the following score : –

10     9     10     9     10 = 48.





Groups  of shots  were  made  with  the  arm  which  sur­

prised many.

It was considered  desirable,  in  recording the results  of







































]’ g.86.-Five consecutive shots at twelve  yards, wi th  Smitl1 & Wesson  .38 caliber Pocket Revol ver, 3% inch  barrel.





the  test, to  adopt  the following  plan: Two  circles  were struck.  The  first  touched  and  inclosed  four  of  the  five shots ;  the  second   touched  and   inclosed   the  five  shots. The diameter  of  the circles was then  taken  and  recorded. Thus   every  target  shows  tbat four  out  of  five shots,  or eighty  per cent of the shots, are in a circle so many inches in diameter ; in the second  column the diameter of  group of  five shots  is  shown.    When   the  shooting   is  regular, and all the shots find the target, a mean is given.    Where this is omitted,  the shots were not caught  by the target.

In order  to represent  the location oi the groups of shots,


POCKET REVOLVERS.                                         123


the distance  the   group  of five averages  from the bullseye, or object aimed  at, is given,  and  the  direction  is indicated by the  clock  dial, as  in  rifle shooting.    To illustrate : A group  of  shots  recorded   6-XII mean   the  location  of  the group  was six  inches over the  bullseye   at  bvelve  o’clock;

9-III, nine   inches   from   the   bullseye   at   three   o’clock,

and so on.

It is  perhaps   not   generally known   that    the  mode  of grasping a revolver  has much  to  do with  the elevation of the  shots; therefore it is  impossible   to  sight   a  revolver perfectly for  different individuals.    Most  of  the shooters shot   about   alike  as  regards   elevation  ;  but  one  of  the experts, by his  mode of  grasping a revolver,  and  perhaps sighting, would group  his shots  a number  of  inches  lower than  the other  men.

The   tables   presented  are   full   of   interest   to   those familiar   with  firearms; and  many  valuable  deductions, it is thought, can  be made from  them.



















Revolver.         Action. Length  Weight

U.M.C.                                    WINCHESTER.                                                  u.s.


of            of                                           Location                                         Location               Location

Barrel.  Arm.       4 Shots.     5 Shots.         of          4 Shots.    5 Shots.          of         4 Shots.                     5 Sh ots.     of

Group.                                         Group.                                                      Group.

Smith &                 Single. 3!ins.        13 ozs.    3.18   .. .. 5.37  ….  3     XII  3.69  • •• 0                  4.87  ….  1     XI                              4.43  • • • 0                                                             6              …. 6                                   XII


\Vcsson.           ”           ,,         ”        2.37




2t      IX     3.75


4.43            5       X JI   3.25            5                 8       X I


”      5.12




fi       XI   6

• • • 0


••• 0

4      X ll 2.69




3!      XI


…. 0                                                                                                                       • •• 0                                                                                                                       • •• 0

”              ”                                                   ….                   …        ….             ….                                       ….


0  … 0

Cl                           ”             ”        3.25           3.75           Centered  4                   6                Centered 4.31         9.75         CenteredAve1·age…  •• •• 0  ••• ….. … ……..  3.48  ….  5.09  ….                 4.36   • •• 0        5.73  ….                                                                                  3.67   ….  6.59   ….

Double. 3i!ns.        13 ozs.  4.43  …. 6.43   …. 5        XII  2.87   ….  3.75  …. 4! XI            3.50                                                      … 5.31  ….  3                              XII


”              ”             ”      4.50



0   0   ••

3       X       2.67



2       IX      3.67

.. …



5       X l


”            ”             ”        3.06

….  6

…. Centered   2.75

.. .


0   •••

Centered   3.62




2!      XII


”             ”        ”     4.12




”        6.62



0   •••

”         1.94



• 0   0  •

4      XII


Average…  …. .. .. …….  …….. 4.03  …. 6.01   ….              3.73  • 0  • •   4.89  ..                                                                                  3.18   …. 4.14   . ….

American             Double  31 in s.  19 ozs.   6.18   . … 10         …. 10       XI      5.50  ….  7.43  …. 11! XII  7.30  …. 11       • • • I 12                                                                 XII


Single.     ”              ..   4.37





5!     XI      3.25






4       XJ       7.56

…. 11.50



8       XII


Arms Co.           or            ”              ”        4.67




2       X       7.37

…. 11.06


2t      XI      2.75




4       XII


”         ”         ”      4.18




5       XI      2.56




4! XII  6.31




6!      XI


Average…  …….. • • •• • • • 0        …….. 4.85   ….  7.34   ….                      4.67   …. 6.57  ….                                                                                                  5.98  …. 9.92  ….



Hopkins &          Double.       i.. s.  12t”  s. 7.68     …  8.30  …. 4       XII 5.05   …. 6        …. 9!       IX                            2.75  …. 4.60  …. 8                   XI


Allen..          ”




…. 10       IX 7.60




6        X       4



…. 10!    XI


”              ”            ”        4.18

….  5


3!    I X      6

….  9


3      X       3.18




2       XLI


”              ”        ”         5.37




4       X       2.75* …. 4


2! IX 7.67




5       XI


Average. .      ………  …….. ……… 4.90  …. 5.59  …. .               5.35   ….  7.12   ….                4.40  ….  6.45  ….



.. ….. ……..         ….                                  …

Marlin Arm:3       Double. 3l ins.  18 ozs.  4.50   …. 5.50  ….  4!      X       6.87   …. 8.31  …. oi      X                 4                          ….  6.25   …. 6                X Co.                   • •• 0    ••••                                                                      .                 2.75                     4.25  …. 4                         VJI 5.50  .       7        ….  3!               XII  3.50  • • • 0                                                                                      4.68  …. 21-                   X



Average.       …….. • • • •  0 •••  .. 0 ••••••    3.62   ….  4.87   ….                6.18  ….  7.66   ….                3.75  …. 5.46   …..   t









Length W i ht                        U. 1\J. C.                                   WINCHESTER.                                                               u.s.

Revolver.      Action.       or                                                         !Location                                         Location                        Location

Barrel.  Arm.       4 Sh·ots.      5 Shots.          of          4 Shots.  5 Shots.           of          4 Shots.                   5 Shots.       of

G1·oup.                                          Group.                                                       Group.

Smith &                 :::Hogle.   41ns.   17! OZI!.   3.87   ….  6               …. 6 in. XI      6.12   ….  7.75   ….  5 in. XU   4.50   ….  7.50    …. 4ln. XII


Wesson.       ”           ”            u           2.25




6         X        4




7! XI      4.25




9       XI


”         H                           u          2.69




4         VI      3.62   …. 6.12   …. 2          VI 2.31   ….. 5.18

.. …

2         VII



cc                ,,

IC                           ”             ”       3.50





1     XII  1.25




3       Xll  2.25

. ….  4


3!    XIl



….  5.50


3      :XII 3.87

…. 6


6       XII  6.50



6         X I





Average…  …….. … ….. …       3.50    ….  5.20   ….               3.77   ….  5.82   ….                                              3.96   . … 5.86   ….Smith &               Double  4 ins.    17t  ozs.   5.12   ….  5.’75   ….  3 in. X I        2.06   …. 3.43   …. 3         1X            6.62                                                                                                                            … 8                                   ….  4                                      IX


Wesson.        ,,          II                         ”       2.62




3        IX      4.38    ….  7.87    ….  5       IX     3.75   ….  5.87


5      X I


”         cc                 ”         6




2!      IX   3.88




2         IX 4.50




7!       X



    ”           ”          ”   5.50




4!       X        7



6!  IX   8.50

…. 10.37


5! IX


Avera({e. .. …. … . • 0   ••  … ……..  4.81   ….  6.59   …..                  4.33    ….  6.26   ….                                                                               5.84   • •• 0        7.24   0  0  ••

Marlin Arms  Douule 3ins.         17 ozs. 5.25  …..  8            …. 7         XII  3.50   …. 6.50          …        1       5                                                       ….


Co.                 ”         ”        ”         4.75

• 0  ••


• 0   ••

3        II£ II


13        XII 5

0   0   ••                                                   ….

3        III


”        ”             ”         §


11       XII  ,y


10         XI   II





cc                 ”        ”       5)7

.”‘ .. 8


8        xu                 4.25

0   •••  ,r

• •• 0    10            XII


American            Single 3Ins.        18o!zs.      4.70   …..          …. 11      XII *         ….             lOt   xu  tt                             • • 0   •                                                                                              11             xu


Arms Co.        or            H                         H                 4.25

…. 1T

.. … 10          XC  5.85


6.06   …..   9   X II      4.87    ….  7.25   …. 11      Xll


Double      ”           cc            7.60

• • • 0    11.18

0  ….

9t xu  4


.25       0   0   0   •  11! XII




AMMUNITION.LegFth  Weight                 U. 1\f . C.  LONG.                           ” ‘ INOliESTER  LONG.                                          U. M. C. SHORT.                                                                          


Revolver.         Action.                      of                                            Location                                        Location





Barrel.  Arm.
4 Shots.    5 Shots.           of          4 •

5 Shots.

of         4 Shots.     5 Shots.         of


Gro up.




Colt’s.         Double  at ins.  23 OZS.       2.36   ….  4           …. 7 in. XII  2.36   …. 4.43   ….  9 in. XI                      7.75 ….   9.75   ….  7 in. XII




”             ”        cc           4.86″                  u           4.31







• •• 0

5        VI 4:


6       JX      2.75








5       VI   3.37   …..   4.06   • •• 0           4:         VI


3       X


”         ”        ”      8.12


l shoto:tr  10         XII  4.57



•• 0.

5         XII  3.67


5.50   …. 4!        IX


”        ”        ,,    2.50



.. 8          XI     6.82    ….  7.50    ….  6        XI


Average. .. …….. ……..  •• • • • • • 0           4.43   …. 5.60   ….  t                      4.10    …. 6.36   …                                                                                 4.93    0   •••  6.43   ….

• Keyholes.  :t Every pruner punctured by  hammer withdrawn on  account of’ accldenta1 thsoha.rges..:j:  A ve_rage of four gt oups.   §  Three

target in  a 2M-inch circle.














My  own   conclusions, drawn    from            this  and previous private tests  with  pocket   revolvers, are  as  follows: The best  made            revolver   is  always  preferable;   for  not   only accuracy  is secured,  but  the greatest safety  in using  them. Poorly mae  revolvers may  shoot  well, if the  bore  is  of proper  size, and                     the  cylinder   comes  opposite   the           barrel ; but  poorly  made revolvers  soon  lose  their   good  shooting qualities, if. they  possess  them,  and            the  danger is  very great  in using   them,  for  they soon fail  to work   properly. A .32 caliber  cartridge, owing  to the  lighter charge,  does not  seem  to  disable   a  revolver so  sopn  as  a  .38 caliber. Good  a1nmunition  will  shoot        finely  in  a  good  revolver,

·when  that   arm  is  properly   manipulated  by a good  shot ;

but  however  excellen t  the  ammunition, it  will  not  shoot well in an irregularly bored revolver,  though  the arm  may be otherwise perfect.

The  i1npression  was formed   by  the  writer   that   one  of

the  cartridge cotnpanies   had  encountered  this  difficulty; and  in order  to  have its  amn1unition  give good  results in revolvers having   barrels  slightly larger   than   others,   the base  of  the  bullet   had   been  hollowed,   and  with  a  soft bullet  it upset  enough  to fit the barrel.


.A.ilhl!UNITION FOR PISTOLS  AND REVOLVERS.                    127

















ALL  modern American  pistols  and  revolvers  are made to  shoot   n1etallic   cartridges.   There   are   a   few   fine muzzle loading dueling  and  target   pistols  in  use at  the present  time, but  the great  amount  of  labor necessary to load them, in comparison with the modern breech loading arms,  makes  them   unpopular   with   most   pistol  shots, and  out  of  the  question  for  revolvers  for  military  use, where  rapidity of firing and  reloading  is required.   The difference bet,veen a muzzle and  a breech loading, single­ shot pistol is apparently the same as the difference between the  two systems of  rifles.·   If  loaded  a certain  way, there is no advantage in one over the other.    Probably a muzzle­ loading  pistol, charged  the  usual  way of  dueling   pistols, would shovv finer work than  a breech loading  pistol of the same  weight,  length   of  barrel  and   bore, loaded  with  a factory  metallic   cartridge.   But   if  two  pistols   exactly alike,  with  the  exception  of  one  being  a muzzle  loader, and  the other a breech loader, were loaded with the same charge, one  being  loaded  at  the  muzzle, the other at  the breech;  but  instead of  using a factory  metallic cartridge, the  bullet  was seated  in  the  rifting, and  the shell  loaded flush   to  its  top,  and   placed   in  the  chamber,  after   the manner of  loading  the modern breech-loading target  rifle, it is  believed  that  one  pistol would  shoot  as well  as  the other.    Many  of  the   foreign  target  and  dueling   pistols of  recent   manufacture  are   made   breech  loading,   and loaded  in the manner  described.    The expert  pistol  shot can prepare his own ammtmition  if desirable,






‘Vith few  exceptions,  modern  American pistols and re­

volvers take  the metallic  cartridges,  which  are  produced










Fig. 87. -Mr. C. F. A. Armstrong, Boston.          Amateur Pistol Shot.





in  enormous quantities and  variety  of styles in  this coun­ try.   These cartridges vary  in size, and are known to the trade from .22 to .50 caliber, and contain charges of powder


AJ/…1/UNITIO.N  FOR   PIS1’0LS  AND  REVOLVERS.        129


from  three  grains  to  forty,   and   bullets   weighing   from thirty  to 300 grains.

The cartridge companies in America manufacture the following cartridges,  which  are used  in  American   pistols and revolvers: –



Rim-Fie   Cartridges.


Conical  ball   cartridge   for   indoors,  .22   caliber.    .22 caliber:  powder,  3  grains; lead,  30 grains.    .22  caliber (long): powder, 5 · lead, 30.    .22 : powder, 5; lead, 40.

.22:  powder, 7 · lead   45.    .25 caliber· powder, 5; lead,






Fig. 88.-  core of ninety-five, shot by 1\Ir.E. J. Darlington, at  Wilmington Del.,  December  25, with  a Stevens pistol.                                                    Distance  fifty yards. Target % original size.




38.  .25 Stevens: powder, 11; lead, 65.  .30 caliber. powdel’,  6 ; lead,  55.   .30  caliber  (long) : po wder,  9 ; lead, 55.    .32  caliber  (ex.  short) : po,vder,  6 ; lead, 55.

.32  caliber  (short): powder,  9; lead, 82.    .32  caliber

(long) : powder,  13 ; lead,   90.     .38   caliber   (short) : powder, 18; lead, 150.    .38  caliber  (long) :  po\vder, 21; lead,   148.  ..1  caliber: powder,   13 ; lead   130.     .41




caliber    (long) :  powder,    16;  lead,  130.      .44  caliber

(short) :  powder,  21;   lead,   200.    .44  caliber:  powder,

26 ; lead,  200.    :44 caliber: powder,  23 ; lead, 200.    .46

caliber : powder,  26 ; lead,  230.





Oenter  Fire    Cartridges.


.22   caliber   (extra  long)  : powder,  8; lead,  45.    .22 caliber: powder, 15 grains; lead,  45 grains.     .25  caliber: powder,  20;  lead,  77 or 86.    32  caliber  Protector:  pow­ der, 4 ; lead,  51.    .32  caliber Smith  &  Wesson : powder,

9 ;  lead, 85.    .32  caliber   Colt:  powder,  12 ; lead,  90.

.32   caliber   (short) : powder,   9; lead,  82.    .32   caliber

(lon g) : powder, 13; lead, 90.    .32 caliber  Colt:  powder,

20 ; lead100.     .32  caliber   H  &  R : powder,  15;  lead,

88.    .32  caliber   vVinchester:  powder,   20;    lead,  115.

.32  Smith  &  Wesson   .32-.44  target: powder, 10;  lead,

83.     .32  caliber    Smith    &  Wesson   rifle  and  .32  caliber Smith   &  Wesson, .32-.44:  powder,  17 ; lead, 100.               .38 caliber Merwin & Hulbert: powder, 14 ; lead, 145.        .38 cal­ iber         Smith        &            Wesson:        powder,  14; lead,   145.              .38 caliber  (short) : powder, 15lead, 130. .38 caliber (long) Colt :           powder,  18 ;   lead,  132. .38  Smith   &  Wesson, Special self-lubricating cartridge:  powder,  14; lead, 145.

.38-.44 Smith   & Wesson   target: powder,  11; lead,  83.

.41 caliber:  powder,  20 ;  lead,  130.    .41 caliber  Colt’s D. A.: powder, 14; lead , 160.    .41 caliber  (long)  D. A.: powder,   21;   lead, 200.    .44   calibe r  Webley:   powder,

18; lead, 200.   .44 caliber  Bull  Dog: powder, 15;  lead,

168.    .44  caliber   Colt:  po,vder,  23 ; lead,   210.     .44 caliber  Smith   & Wesson, American model : powder,  25 ; lead , 205.  .44 caliber  Smith   & Wesson,  Russian model: powder, 22 ; lead, 255.    .44 caliber  Winchester : powder,

40 ; lead, 200.    .4-! caliber  Merwin  &  Hulbert : powder,




30; lead,  220.    .44   caliber  Stnith   &  Wesson,  Russian model, gallery :  powder, 7.    .44 caliber Smith  & Wesson,







Fig. 80. -Col. Howard Simpson.   Expert Amatetu Pistol Shot, ·wilmington, Del.





Russian   model,  gallery,   round   ball:    po,vder,   7.     .45 caliber   Webley:   powder,   20;   lead,   230.     .45  caliber Colt:    powder,   35;    lead,   250.    .45  caliber  Smith   &





Wesson  (Schofield) : powder, 30; lead,  250.     .50 caliber:

powder,  25; lead , 300.

The  above   list   comprises  all   the  metallic   cartridges, known  to  the author, which  can  be found  in the  market at  the tilne  of  writing this  chapter.   Many  of  these car­ tridges  are adapted to almost  obsolete patterns of  pistols and  revolvers, and would  never  be selected   by skilled marksmen  to do fine work,  for the reason  that   both  pistol and cartridge are not suitable for good shooting.

I have  previously alluded to the great  number  of cheap,

worthless pistol   and revolvers  to  be found  in the  Ameri­ can  n1arket.    l\iany  of  the  cartridges  are for  these arn1s. I have  also  1nention ed  the great   quan tity  of  pistols  and rev<?lven; inte nd ed  for  weapons  of  defense  at short  range. Atnong this  list are numerous cartridges for  these weapons, and   still   others  are  for  the   best  and   most   accurate of American   pistols and  revolvers.    These,  with  a  fe,v  for foreign  weapons,  make  up the list.

Among  the cartridges largely used in single-shot  pistols at  the  pre:::;ent  ti1ne are  the following: –



Rim-Fire      Cartridges.


.22 caliber,  conical  balls;  .22 caliber, short.     .22  long rifle ; .22 Win chester,  .25 Stevens.



Oente1·-Fire  Oart1·idges.


.32  caliber   Smith   &  Wesson  ;  .32   caliber   Colt ;  .32 caliber   (shott) ;  .32   caliue·r   (long);  .32   caliber   Win­ chester  rifle cartridge; .32 cali ber Smith  & Wesson rifle.

For   revolvers    no    expert    markstnen,   unless    obliged

to,   would   use   rim-fire   cartridge.   The    center-fire   car­ tridges giving the  best  results  are as follows: .32 caliber Smith   & Wesson ; .32 caliber  Colt; .32  caliber  (short);

.32   caliber   (long);  .32  caliber   Smith   &  Wesson   rifle,





with  round   or  conical   ball,  light   and   full  charge · .32 caliber   Smith   c'”   Wes  on,  .32-.44  Russian    model ;  .38 caliber 1\Ierwin  c.. Hulbert; .3   caliber  Smith  & We. son;

.38  caliber  ( hort) ; .38  caliber  (long) ; .41  caliber · .4-l:

caliber   Colt   .44  caliber   Sn1ith    ..   ‘Ve. son,   American








Fig. 00.-‘Chir ty sh ot., \)y  lr. H. S. HaTis, at tifty

nutls, with Steven!:! Gould l\Iouel




PistoJ, .2lon-rille U. M. C. car tndite, at Wa n1ut  Hill, Mas., Dec. 30, 1803. rarget reduced to one .fonrtll the origin al size.9   9   9 10 10 10   9    )   9 10      04-

9   9   9   8   8  !) 10 10 10 10 = 92

10  8 10 10   H 10 10 10   9 10 = 96=282





model;   .44  caliber  Snrith  & Wesson,  l{ussian  1nodel, full charge and light charge, with round  or light  conical bullet;

.44  caliber  vVinchester ; .45 caliber   Webley · .45  caliber Colt’s   Army;  .45  caliber  Smith & Wes  on  ( chofield). In  rim-fire cartridges the .22 caliber  conical  ball cartridge i::;   used  in  considerable   quantity. It  makes  very  little report,    ht:trdly   any   smoke,    and    is   u sed   largely   by persons  desirin g  practice  indoors,  ‘vh ere s1uoke and  noise would  be  objectionable.    Manufacturers  clai1n  this  car­ tridge   possesses  great   accuracy   at  short   range   (ten   or fifteen  yards), and   \vill  not  injure   the  pistol.    It is true





that   very  fine  shooting can  often   be  done  with this car­ tridge,  but    the   explosive    substance  with  which    this cartridge is  charged   is  tremendously  powerf ul, and   the slightest  variation in  the  quantity affects  the  power  of a cartridge, therefore it is not  unusual to get a wild  shot with  good  holding,  and it is not uncon1mon to have a bulle t







Fig. 91.-Ten consecutive shots at fif ty yards, by Mr. Sumner Paine, shot at

Walnut Hill, April 23, with a Stevens Gould Model  Pistol, .22 caliber;

score 96 ; target reduced to one quar ter  original size.





lodged   in the  barrel  of  the  pistol from  lack of  power in the  cartridge  sufficient   to force  it out.    The  question of its  not  injurin g a pistol 1nay  be true; but  I should  hesitate to  use  them  in  a  pistol   I desired   to keep  for  the finest work,   although  the sport  which   can   be obtain ed  with these  tiny cartridges tempts 1nany enthusiasts to use the m in  great   quantitie::;.    There  are  conical  ball  .22  caliber




cartridges  in  the market  with  very thick, irregular heads. In  using  them  there  is  much  danger  of  premature  dis-







Fig. 9’2. -l\lr. H. E. Tuck, Haverhill, 1\Iass.           Amateur Pistol Shot.





charges, as by closing the pistql the head of  the cartridge is  jammed, and  an  explosion  is  likely   to  occur,  as  they did several titnes in the writer’s hands.    This fact well illustrates the  gl’eater  danger  in handling   rim-fire  over center-fire cartridges.

The .22  caliber (short) cartridge is consumed annually





by   the   million   in   America    by   pistol   shooters.    It  is probably  as  acc urate,  if  properly  n1ade, as  any  cartridge in  the world  up  to a distance  of fifty  yards.    It doubtless vvill   con tinue  in   popularity f or   many   years,  for   it   is difficult, if   n ot  in1possible,  to  make  a  cartridge of  this size  to  sell   for  the  price  this  cartridge does,  and   have it  cen ter-fire,  besides   the  difficulty   of  making  a  primer small  eno ugh   to fit  a .22  caliber  straight shell.     In  all calibers  above .22, the  rim-fire cartridge is fast  becoming obsolete,  and  they  are  never  chosen  now  by  the  expert pistol shot.    The  chief faults  of the rim-fire cartridges are danger and  unreliabili ty caused  by the  action  of  heat  on the   lubricant.   Ri1n-fire   cartridges  can    be  spoiled    by placing   then1  near a  hot  stove  or  w·here  great   heat  can

1·each them,  or  even  by placing   them  in  a show window

where   the  sun   strikes  them ;  and   ammunition  which would shoot well on leaving  the factory, fron1 the causes mentioned would  be  liable  to  either  miss fire or  shoot  in an  irregular m anner.     Center-fire  cartridges are safer  to handle,  less  liable  to  be  injured by  temperature.    Since the  publication of  the  first  edition  of  this  \York, great improvement  has  been  made  in   American   metallic   car­ tridges for  pistols  and  revolvers, improving the  accuracy and   lessening  the  liability  of  deterioration.   Prominent among  the faults in pistol cartridges are the following:-


1.     The    xterior  diameter  of    the  cartridge, instead  of the interior dia tneter, conf orn1ing to the bore of the  pistol.

2.     The  excessive   crin1ping  of  the  shell    to  hold   the bullet.

S.     The  placing of  the lubricant ou the exposed  part  of the bullet,  instead  of in cannelure!:i covered by the shell.

4.     The ‘vant of a proper  po,vder  to lad  the  cartridge. The  first  fault may properly be  laid  to  the door of                           the





manufacturer of  the  arms, which we are  glad   to  say  is

found  mostly in cheap revolvers.

The second fault  is now largely  overcon1e by cartridge­

makers, and a· a result  betteT shooting is being done.

The  third fault  the writer claims some credit for correct-







Fig. 93. -1\Ir. N. A. Hughes.         Expel’t Amateur Pistol antl Revolver  Shot.

Williamsport, Penn.




ing.    The  Government   Ordnance   Board  \visely saw  the fault   of  such  a  cartridge,  and   made   the   Government revolver cartridge with no exposed lubricant.   The  Win­ chester model, 1873, rifle cartridge has  uo  outside  lubri-






cant.    This  is one  reason  why the  Colt  frontier  revolver is  the  favorite arm  of          thousands of    frontiersmen,   when experiments  would  probably  convince  the  most  sceptical that  the  Russian  model  cartridge as a charge  possesses far greater accuracy, and  if       in  the  hands   of                      a  battalion of cavalry   would  show  much  better   results   than   the  army cartridge or  the  .44 Winchester. The  original  Smith  & Wesson .Russian  model  cartridge was designed   by officers of the  Russian  government, but  why  they  decided  to have an  outside  lubricant the  writer   could  never   understand. This  cartridge, as formerly made,  when  shot  in a Smith  & Wesson   revolver,   in  cold                weather,  if shot  slowly  out  of doors,  would  foul  a revolver  to s.uch an extent as to disable it; and as Russia  is a cold country,. it vvould seem easy  to imagine  the  difficulty likely  to arise from  this cause. The

\vriter,  perceiving this fault in the Russian  model cartridge, some  time ago visited   the  factory  of    the   Union   Metallic Cartridge       Co.,  and      suggested   a  change.  The       superin­ tendent of the  works  immediately invited  the  writer  to the testing-room,  where  fifty shots  \Vere fired  rapidly  without cleaning, and  the  result  offered as proof of  the  excellence of   the cartridge.    It was suggested  that  a box  be  placed out  of  doors, it being  a  cold  day,  which  was  done,  and af ter  a      brief   time  the  cartridges were     shot slowly,  and before the  box was half   consumed   the revolver could  not be cocked,  from  the  excessive  fouling.  This  enterprising company  at once saw the fault   in this   cartridge, and in a short   time the  \vriter  had  the  pleasure  of receiving a box of  the  ne w  cartridges, with  no  outside   lubricant,  which, upon  testing, were found  much  cleaner ; and  it is believed that   tvventy, or  perhaps   more,  of these  inside  lubricated cartridges can be fired in a Smith  & Wesson  revolver,  and accurate shooting secured.      The  improvement was  so ap­ parent  that   this company  discontinued  the  old  :p1anner of


.A.Jl.JfUNITIOlt FOR   PISTOLS  A.ND   REVOLVERS.                  139



making  this  cartridge, and  manufacture its entire   product of thi   cartridge, as well a · those for n1odern pocket  revol­ ver , with no exposed  lubricant; and other con1panies soon followed  the example.

All  amn1unition ·which is intended to be carried  in a belt or the  pocket  sh ould  have  no  outside  lubricant.   When the  exposed  part   of  the  bullet   is  freely lubricated, it  is likely  to  become  detached   on  one  side, and  expetiments have  shown   that  a bullet,  with   grease  on  one  side  only, will  not  shoot  accurately; and I am  pleased  to  observe that   most  cartridges  for  smaller   calibers  are  now  made with  an increa  ed  number  of  cannelures and  no  exposed lubricant.

Tl1e chief   trouble  with  revolver  arun1unition   to-day  is its  exces ·ive  fouling   fronthe grea  e  and                   po,vder.      By

:tiring  bulletino soft  snow   f rom  a  revolver   ‘vhich   has been shot  a few  tin1es, the  investigator \vill  fintl a ragged bullet,  ·which sho,vs  how it raked over  the adamantine-like crust which adhere :;  to the inside  of a revolver barrel,  and which in1pairs its accuracy ; therefore  the  fine shot  cleans his  revolver  auou t once in every  ten shots,  if shooting the full  charge.           We  have seen frontiersm en who stated  they seldon1 clean  their  revolver except  ‘vhen   they  go  hunting for a victin1;   bu t    as  these  individuals never  did  what  is now  called        fine shooting, and              the  man  who  cleans                                       his revolver a                     often   as  every  ten shots  puts   ten  consecutive shots  in a f our-inch      bullseye  at  thirty yards,  it is  evident that  keeping a revolver  clean is conducive to good  marks­ Inanship.

Most shooters believe  a great   improvement will,  before long,  be 1nacle in  powtleTand  it is thought that   this will lessen  the fouling  of                                     revolvers ; but   this  diffi culty  is not likely  to be “‘holly  overco me.

A new cartridge recently invented and  perfected by 1\ir.





D.  B.  WesRon, senior   n1ember  of  the  firm  of  Smith   & vVesson, of  Springfield, Mass., the famous  revolver manu­ facturers, is known  as the self-lubricating cartridge, and it




Fig. 94.-Self .lubricating cartridge before  firing·.





\vas invented by Mr. Wesson  vvith the  object of  lesse ning the fouling  in revol vers.    The  finest shooting   revolver  in the world, if shot  rapidly  in a dry  atn1osphere, is likely to becon1e so  inaccurate  by fouling  as  to  greatly affect  its usefulness.   Mr. Wesson sought to overcome this difficulty in  the f ollowing  Inanner : –

The  bullet  is provided  with  a core in its  base about  one

eighth of  an  inch  in  diameter.   Into   this  core  a copper plug  is insetted.   The  core is filled with  lubricant, and at the  base of  the core is a brass stopper.   From   the  bottom




Fig.95.-Action of cartridge when fired.





of the core there are four 1ninute  passages extending in dif_

ferent  directions toward  the  point of the bullet, cominout





at  the point  above the shoulder.    The  e  passages are also filled with lubricant.               Af ter the discharge  of the cartridge, tl1e gas forces the  brass  plug up  the  core, thus  driving the lubricant through  the four  passages above  referred  to, and it is claimed  by the inventor that by this n1eans th ere is an even  distribution of            the lubricant alo u g  the bar rel of     the revolver,  which  keeps  the  residuun1 tnoit  and  the  ba1-rel clean.      This  moisture   prevents    what  js  termed   by  rifle­ men,  as  freezing   on          the     barrel,   which       m eans that the residuu1n, which  at  th e time of firing  is in a molten  state, cools rapidly, adhering to the barrel  with  such  pertinacity as  to  permit   of              re1noving  only  with      the  mo t vigorous application  of              brush,   and  often   making  it  necessary   to apply  a wire bru  hand water.

A  cal’eful   test  of  thee   cartridges ‘vas  n1ade   by  the writer  at  ‘Valnut Hill,  l\fass., at  the range  of  the Massa­ chusetts  Rifle  Association.   Several   hundred  rounds   of the   cartridges  in  .38  caliber  were   shot   fro1n  Smith   & Wesson   revolvers with  barrels   of  diff erent  lengths  from

3t   up    to   six    in cL es.    The  results in   every  trial  were

excellent.   There  is  a  diminution  of   recoil,  which  may not   be attributed to  the constru ction  of  the  bullet  ;  the non-fouling qualities  of  the  cartridge  were  conspicuou s. Fifty  consecutive . hot.  were fired iu one test,  after  which a careful  trial  was made f or accu racy, and  a series  of shots at  fifty yards  placed  in  a  group   five  inches  in diameter. Another  trial  was made; and  after  . hooting   a number  of Bhots  with   the   arm,  :Nir.  H.  S.  I-Iarris,  the  ‘veil-known pistol expert, fired a series of seventeen consecutive shots, off-hand,  at   a   distance   of  fifty  yards,   on  the  Standard A1nerican    target,  all    of   which   were   bullseyes.  The revolver   used  was  a  Smith    &  Wesson,  with   a  six-inch barrel.

Viewing this cartridge solely  on the grounds of accuracy,








it  is in e’ ‘ry  \\’:1y n   superior enrtrid e.    ‘l’ht’  radic..’al d ­ pnrtnrin  its  t’\)lh tnttic..)n  t’t.lU t:?tl 1nL\ h”         \Yat ‘h Yigilnutly for   irrt\g·nlari tie”   in   sht)l’\ting-.   but    1  thst’O’f•retl    none.


‘fh ‘l’e  “·ns  llt)l   n  keY.

hole  ill      1ht’  sr·Yernl   hnndrt d  sh ..,t,


Hr  d. lh’t an  unncL’t)untnblt’;  nnd “·hilc  I tUn  not  prepart’d

tt)     a.y  thnt   it “·as  rlw  n1 st  ae ‘nrnt’      ‘:Htridg·’ kno\\·n. I


dt) not    ht’si tnt e  tn stnte     tluH    l  hnxt’ lll’Yr St’en n ny.



‘h!(‘lll n te    e ‘ntrnl-fin?     etn·t ridg’t’S   ”hen    th’L’d    fronl     a    re­

‘ h·’r.       Olllt’ c,f     the  llllHlt’rn  e  ntrnl-tlrc  piBtt l cartridge:-\ hnybc•t’n in1proYt’tl t o”                    Tt· lt l”\t \n t  dnriug the:.’ pnt  f,”. yt’:ll. t)  sn ·h an            extent                    th tt          thy ar0   lH’ar   perft’ction: nnd       when  n  L'(H’irid’e is  pn dn(‘t.’d   t.”f nperio1· xueritit can  t”mly  be in n stuall  degTec superior.                      I t  is the  opinion of  tlll the   expert pisrol        sht)h”·ho  lHl,·e  sht)t    this  ne”· cartridge that   it  i$ n  elennc:r cnrtrillg..·. e  than those UHlnu-

fnctured     b)..   the   0ld    nlethott      \Y ith    tht    lnbri ·ant  in       the

ennneltU’t’S.        ‘I’he  lh? \Y   cnrtritlg· ). in tl     Srnith     &”resson

revol Yer   ‘”ith    a   six-inc:h    barrt?L     “t’enls   h)    sho )t    with


n  nrl.y  n”  tnuch    nceurilCY.

l\S      the  f,nnons   l  n.;-riflc     cn r-


tridge inn sing·le h )t pisltl  with n ten-inch  hnrrel.

I nn  inforn1cd a  test  of  this  f’n rtritlh’L’hns b ‘en ruatle b.’ th      lT nited  …. tnt”s                          govcrlHUt’ntth ….         rt’$Ult    ‘ho”-ing  in­ crea ed  acctn·ncy  n” cou1pnred “it h 1egulnr 11u un1nition.

It    i”  stattld   that      the    prict’    t1f     th(‘     ll \Y  ca rtridge      i

lig-htl)  in tHlY’ lllCL’  t)f      the  n.’gnlar protlnctof       th “)    f&lctory but   the. t ‘                            t’ekincr the  tnot accurate cnrtrid”‘·’ “ill not  b? intlut’HL’Ctl :lgtlinst  nsing it  1>:  tht’ adtlit innal  L\O ·t.                          ‘l\)  an

inditl\’)r)nt  shot.  the  snperitll’it,,of       the   annnunitivn, if  it

t’\.i t,     “ouhl    ‘nnnt  fl r   but   little.      It    Wl uld    pn)bnbl)

ho\Y  t    btlt  adynntng- ‘ in hL)Otino· n ll’ng· ‘ l’ie”     nf sl wts,

‘”htr’) elcn ning pistols wapn)hibited.                  T’h      n1 n nu1nit iHl

i” tnnnnfac tur   d  by       mith  \: \rL'”S  n n.t t’pringiield, Ins.,

:1nd  nn illnt\ll·ntion of it  is presenhd her'”ith.

… \”1 ·   nuul’ an1n1unitiou is  tnorc   tl \. irnbl) than  old. if


.AMM l!N l T/O N   Jt’()R   PJ S‘lOL S   AN / J      R h’VOLVI’:ll8.           14n



great acc n raey  is  desi red ;  hen ce  lJHtHy  ntaJ·ksrn CJ 1   pn.!fer to load tJ.c jl’ O \Vll   anunnuition , the  tnod n  of  whidt   \vill  be found in  nn o Ll w l’ cl1 a.ptcr.

rfhe lle of  ni iro-powdet·s      in  l ‘C:Vf>]vel’H J ms n ot at tractell the        at tcJJtiou             in        tl liH  coull try  tl1a.t     it    h a.s  in     hngJ and.

‘l’he late Jn glish  ma.ils  bl’i ng me ad yjces  tl Ht.t,  in  add itio11

to  the J·eccnt sucoessfttl  tri al of”..  V.” powd er       jll   rcvo1- verH  at   Bisley,  th e re  h ns been  a sue;ceHH flll Ll’i al          o f  it in th e match es            of         the    NorilJ     Loudon           a11d         Sou tit          Lon doll H.cvol vcr Clnl>s, whi ch arc,  I Ut Jden;t.a ud , a.d ju u c;ts to   th e rifl e cluh<;.               Ml’.  I J. Andre ws, at tl tc Nnl’tiJ Ln J  t ci OJ t     HifJ e Clu h, Ilford GTat1 ge, i r1  189B, sc·orcd the  pohie  of          fc,r  ty­ two out ()[  fol’ty-two, at twcn ty yard<.;, hu I lsc yes Cf)U n tin g seven.     A     cliagra.m  of           h is  target is l,nw11 i u          the  accoin­ pau yin g illustl’ti o u .                           (J n tlte  followi n g  Wl..;Ck,  Lieutellau t









Ilailey  adopted  tltis   povvd e1·,   and   also   mu le    f ol’ty-two points.    Ou  Wedn esday, October  4, Mr. C. F’. Lrnve  tnade the   top   score  of   forty-on e  ou t   of   a   pnssihJc forty-t,vo points.    ‘I’he   \Vinn ers   of   tl-1c   thi t·d ,   frnn·th,  an d   fifth









positions  also  used “S. V.” powder, shooting above their average.   The revolver used  by Mr. Andrews was a Colt revolver, and  the charge  said  to be 4g! rains of  smokeless” S. V.,”  with a 225-grain bullet.

I have  been eagerly  waiting to learn if  this  powder  or any  other  smokeless  powd er can  be used  successfully in a revolver as a service charge.   Four  and  one-half grains  of smokeless   povvder is  no  charge  f or  any thing   but   target shooting; an d  target  shooting  with  a revolver  as  shot  in many places, at  the  time  of  writing, with lightly loaded cartridges, is  nothing more  or  less. than  pistol   shooting. The  results  obtained   in  England are  in teresting, and  no doubt  will  be  good  ne,vs to many  who are f ond  of  shoot­ ing light  charges with  a revolver at a target; f or probably the  use  of  such  am1nunition   does  away  with  one  of  the

1nost  objectionable  f eat ures in revol ver shooting, which  i3 the necessity   of   cleaning  the   revolver   after   every   ten shots.

I advise  shooters   to  refrain  from  experimenting ‘vith

nitro-powders  until   the  prod ucers   have    demonstrated ·

beyond. doubt  thei r safety  in revol vers and  pistols.


RELOADING AMMUNITION .                                  145













THERE is a general impression among  the  shooting fraternity that   reloaded   ammunition is  superior   to   the factory  made.    This  is  doubtless true   if  prepared  by an expert, but  it is  safe  to  say  that   a  ma jority  of   persons would  secu re  much  better   results from  the factory-made cartridges than  they  would  with  those  prepared   by them­ selves.    It is necessa1y  to have  perfect firearms  to secure fine and  regular shooting;  but   unless  the  proper  ammu­ nition   is  used,  the  su periority of   the  pistol  or  revolver will  not  be apparen t.

As  marksmen    become  skillfu1,   they   notice   errors   in shooting ;  if  they   possess  enthusiasm  enough   to  pecome experts, they  are  constantly studying  to  improve   their work,  and   a   large   share   of  their   attention  is  devoted to   the  ammunition. It  is  not   uncommon   to  find   car­ tridges with  the bullet  improperly seated   in the  cartridge case, or  shell.     The  bullet  is sometimes f orced  over  one side  of  the  shell,  and, instead of  being   wholly seated   in the  shell,  bas  the  full  length of  the  bullet   on  one  side exposed.    The  common  mode  of  lubricating, by  dipping in  the  lubricant, after   the  bullet   is  seated in  the  shell, hides many defects  in factory-made  cartridges with  outside lubrication; and  the indifferent shooter  fires the cartridges without thinking or investigating the cause of  wild shots, until  he notices what is technically known   as  “keyholes,” or the  bullets going  through the  target sideways  instead of  point  on.





Other  faults  in factory-made ammunition are caused  by age, which  deteriorates the  cartridge, causing the  powder to  cake,  and  the  shell,  bullet, and  lubricant to  oxidize, the  latter cause  also  affecting the efficacy of  the  primer. As  some  cartridge companies  have  used  one formula  for making   lubricant for  cold weather, another  for  warm weather, and  as lots  of ammunition get scattered in all sec­ tions, and  are sometimes carried  in stock  for several  years, it can be said  that  one might  not get  so good  results  from factory cartridges as from  those freshly  prepared of  home make.

There  are   other   reasons  why  many  of   the  shooting fraternity  prefer  to  reload   their  shells; it is  a  piece  of economy  not to be despised, and being located  in an inaccessible   place, away from   towns  or  cities  where  car­ tridges can   be  purchased, compels  some  individuals  to do  this  work.

The  marksman, in attempting  to  reload  ammunition, will   encounter many  obstacles,  and  he  is  not  likely   to produce   so  good  cartridges at   the  first  trials  as  he  can purchase in  stores   where  they  have  been  received   fresh from  the  factories; but   to  those  who  desire  to  prepare their   own  ammunition, the  following   mode, practiced   by different pistol  and  revolver  experts, will doubtless prove a guide  to many : –

If   the  finest  work  is  to  be attempted, the  use  of  new

shells  is recommended.    If   old  shells  are  to  be reloaded, the  exploded   primer  should   first  be  removed,  the  shells then  washed        and                         thoroughly  rinsed in         water,  warm if convenient ; and  if desirable to remove  the stains from  the shells,  a little acid  may be dropped  into  the water.   After washing  thoroughly, dry perf ectly, but  do not heat  enough to  draw   the      temper.    Special      care  should   be                         taken   to have  the water  dried out of        the  pockets or  primer-holes.


RELOADING A:bfMUNJTION.                                  147


The  next   process,  if the  shell  was  previously crimped,  is to expand  it at  the mouth.

The reloading tools supplied by manufacturers are adver­

tised to expand a    well as decap  the shell,  but  do so very ineffectually, and a tool  is recommended  specially  for  this purpose.    Unless  the  shell        is  sufficiently   expanded, the bullet   cannot   be  properly  seated  in the shell,  and  this  is one of        the              first           difficulties      the      beginuer   is             likely    to encounter.              After expanding the shell, the  next  operation i.         to  reprime   the  shells.      It \vill    be



found   necessary   to    use    the    copper primer    for             mo t          of      the     American

shells.      Considerable    care  should   be



Fig. !l’i.

used in seating the primer,  as most  of the   hells  are  not  solid         head,  and   a


heavy pres·ure on the capper  will seat the ptimer  too deep, and  often  force  it through the pocket  and    poil the shell. If the full  charge  of powder  is to be used in the cartridge, the shells should  then  receive  it; but  if  a  reduced  charge is to be used in a large caliber, with the object of 1naking cartridges for indoor   hooting, 1nany expert    use a  wad  of pasteboard  of  the exact  size of  the inside  diameter of  the shell,  with  a hole about  one half  the dian1eter of  the wad in its center.     The  wad is seated   in the  ba e of  the shell, and  the light  charge  of  powder  poured  in.    The  object  of this  wad  is  to  cause  the  powder  to ignite  quicker than  it would,  if  spread   over  the  base of a large  shell.     By  the hole   in  the    center    of  the   wad,   much    of   the    small charge  of  fine  po,vcler is  directly in front  of  the  primer, and  the  theory   of  experts is  that   the  full  force  of  the charge  of  powder  is  thns  more  quickly   secured.

The  question  of  powder  is  a  very  itnportant one.    It has   provoked  a  great   amount   of  discussion   and  experi­ menting   among  manufacturers and  shooters.   The   most





desirable point  is  cleanliness, as  much  fouling  means inaccurate shooting ; and as  that  is a very  marked   defect in  nearly   all   black   powders  at  the  present   time,  many believe   that   the  effectiveness  and   accuracy   of   the  re­ volver  will  be  increased  when  improvements  in  powder are  made.





































Fig’. 98.-Five shots with Smith & Wesson Revolver, at tifty yards, by Mr. John

L. Fowle.  Reuuced to  one quarter original size.




In  the  smaller   calibers  and  in  short-barreled  pistols  a finer   grain   of   powder   should   be  used;  the  fine  grain powder is also better  for light  charges.

A request to  the  leading American   powder  manufact­

urers   to  state the  brands  of  powder  they  recommended for pistol and revolver shooting brought the following responses :-

The  American Powder  Mills recommends for pistol  car-


RELOADING AMMUNITION.                                149


tridges  ‘ nothing  coarser than  No. 2 ; i. e., Telegraph, Nos.

2 to 5 ; Rifle Cartridge, Nos. 3 to 5 ; also Dead Shot.”

E.  I.  Du   Pont   de  Ne1nours &   Co.  reco tnmends   the powders  specially  made  for  that   purpo e, and  known  as FFF B cartridge  powder, and also FFF A po\vcler.

The  Eagle Duck  No. 3 is also used for pistol cartridges ; but Mr. Conlin, the expert in such  matters, and who keeps a    gallery  in   N evv York    for    pistol  hooting   p1·incipally, states  that  “the  FFF  B brand  of   powder, introduced  to revolver  shooters,   ‘vould   prove  the  best  adapted    to  re­ volver cartridges, as I find  it  to be  the  best  that   I have yet tried.”

The Oriental  Powder  Mills recommends for pistol car­ tridges  Wing   Shot,   No.  2  or  No. 3  grain,  or  Western Sporting,  Fg or FFg grain.

The  Hazard  Powder  Co.    For  pistol shooting,  a  fine grain  is  preferred, of  ” Electric,” ” Atnerican  Sporting,” or ” l{entucky  Rifle.”




In addition  to the American brands of black powder mentioned  is the American wood powder, which is favored by some pistol shots on account of its non-fouling qualities. The  English  powder, Curtis’s & Harvey  No. 3, is also ex­ cellent.    It is quite clean and uniform, but its cost is very high,  the  expense  of  a  pound   being  about  $1.50.    The American    Powder    Mills’   products   are  used   by  many experts,   the   Hazard’s Kentu cky  Rifle  is also  a  favorite brand.    But there are many opinions as to the best po,vder; if a shooter  obtains good results  with a certain  brand, it is wisdom  to use it  exclusively, if  possible, as  the different brands    vary    much   in   strength  and   affect   elevations. Mr.  F.  J. Rabbeth,  an  acknowledged  expert   in  firearms, has devoted  considerable  time to experimenting with pow­ ders, shooting  1nany hundred shots  at  a  rest, ‘vith  revol­ vers  fitted   with   fine  sights,  to   learn,  if  possible,  the




merits  of  different brands  ·a£  powder  for  pistol  shooting. His experiments with nitro  powder show  excellent results; but  a majority of the pistol shots at the present  time do not seem to favor nitro  powders, but  there  exists  a feeling  that before long  a  powder  will  be  produced  which  will  cause less  fouling  than   that   in  use  at  the  present    time,  and such  a compound will  be welcomed  by pistol shots.

After  placing   the  powder  in  the shell   the  bullet   is in­

serted, generally without a wad, and crimped into the shell.






Fi g. 99.- Ideal Reloauing· Tool.




In  cartridges with  full  charges  the  bullet  is usually  seated

‘vith  a tool made expressly for the  purpose.   With reduced charges,  a round   ball is often  used, which is  seated   down in the shell  touching the  powder.     It is  then  necessary  to lubricate the  cartridge; and . as there  are no cannelures to hold  the  grea.·e,  it  i desirable   to  place   the   lubrication around   the  upper   edge  of  the bullet.   There  are several ways of  doing  this ; the most  approved n1anner  being  to place a bit of  cold lubricant in each shell  after   the  bullet has  been sea ted, then  with  a  plug  with  a concave  end,  of about   the same  dia1neter as  the  shell,  force  the  lubricant


RELOADING  AAf.ft.fUNITION.                     151



down on top of the bullet, and  by a few turns  of  the plug the lubricant will be placed evenly  aroun d the edge of the ball.    Evenly   distributing  the  lubricant  is  essential   to secure even shooting.

If desirable to make the bullets, we cannot  add anything to  the  directions  given  by  Mr. F.  J. Rabbeth,  and  pub­ lished in the first edition of this  work.

“I have been tempted  to tell riflemen what I know about






































Fig.lOO.-Forty-n ine out of fifty, at twenty yards, with a .44 caliber Russian

Model Smith & ‘””e  son, made at the Brighton, Eng., Rifle Gallery, December

18, 1888, by ?tlr.Walter Winan s.   Best five-shot score, at twenty yards, at that time  made in England.  Target full size.




making  bullets, thereby  enabling such  as  have  not  mas­ tered  the art,  but  who  have  the  time and  inclination,  as also the disposition,  to save a penny.    To begin,  the mold should be of brass or composition, as lead flows to that metal better  than iron or steel, and is worth more than the differ­ en ce in cost.    The  two halve   should  be pivoted  together,





like  a  pair of  blacksmith’s tongs  (not like  a nut  cracker, as  many   of   them   are), with   a  large,   well-fitted   hinge screw, with a body part  one-eighth larger than  thread part, so  that   it may  be  screwed   solid   against    this   enlarged body part  without  binding the  mold  too tightly together. Unless  these  hinge  screws  are so fitted  with shoulder, they are  continually  working  loose,  and   causing   delay   and trouble.   After  the  mold is pivoted  together and  properly jointed,  it should   have  one well-fitted  dowel pin placed as far from  the  pivot  screw  as  possible  in  the centre  of  the mold   head.    The   mold  should   be .ample  in  size  at the pivot  or  hinge,  and  at  the  head,  so  that   it  will  not  be likely  to  get sprung out  of  adjustment by rough  usage; also that  its  mass may  retain heat,  and  so preserve  a more uniform  temperature while in use.    The  cut-off should   be of cast steel, one eighth  to three sixteenths of an inch thick, and  pivoted   on  a  substantial, well-fitted   screw,  with  en­ larged  body part, as described for  hinge  screw, and for  the same  purpose; i. e., that  it may stay  put  when secured  to place.

” The  sprew  hole for  any  ordinary sized  bullet   should

not    exceed   one-tenth   inch   in   diameter.   The    cut-off should   project  about   one  and  a  half   inches   beyond  the mold  head,  and  should  swing   far  enough to one side  to entirely uncover  the  base of the  bullet.  The shanks  of the mold should be adapted to receive  wooden handles, and with handles  attached, for comfort  in  use, should  measure about nine inches  to hinge screw.    .

” For  melting the  lead a  small    4 Ideal ‘ kettle should

be  used   that   will  hold,  when full,  about  twenty pounds; for  dipping from  this,  a  small   4  Ideal  ‘ ladle, with  round nozzle  that will  enter the  counter sink  or  sprew  hole  of the  cut-off.             Heat   the  mold  till  it is                 near  the                               melting tempera ture  of    lead,  and  when  the  lead  in kettle is suffi-


RELOADING .AMJfUNITION.                                      153



ciently  hot, dip  from  kettle   vvith ladle.    Apply  mold  to nozzle while in a horizontal position, then  while still  hold­ ing  mold  in contact,  quickly  elevate  ladle  above  mold, holding  them  in  that   position  for  a  few  seconds.    This gives  the  full  pressure  of the  lead   in  the  ladle  on  the mold while it is cooling, and by this  method  as  perfect  a bullet  can  be cast as can be made by swaging.     They  can be cast at  the average rate of  225 per hour.     A gas stove is  much  the  best  means  of  melting   the  lead, as  a  more even  temperature can  be maintained; but  it  is not  diffi­ cult  to cast good bullets,  using almost any kind  of  a coal fire.

” The    lead    and  molds  should    be  kept  at  a  tempera­

ture  that  will require a few seconds, say five to ten, for the lead in the sprew hole to solidify after  the  ladle  has been separated   from  the  mold.    This   is  the  true   test;   and while this  temperature is  maintained,  the  bullets  will  be cast  perfectly.    The mold  should  be held over the kettle while casting, so  that  any  lead  spilled  may fall  into  the main body.




“The best method for  lubricating grooved  bullets  is to

mix beeswax and  cylinder  or other  heavy oil, – one  part oil  to four  beeswax.    Procure  a pair of      ordinary  ten-cent tweezers, file away the centre so they  will grasp the bullet near the point and not slip off  too readily.   Dip  the  bul­ lets to cover  all  the grooves, and  set  them on a board  to cool. When  cool,  remove surplus   lubricant    by  forcing bullets          through    a             tube        the    size  of   a   bullet.      This  is cheaply made  by cutting off the head of   a shell  and  sol­ dering  a tapering  tin extension  to the shell, say six inches long.    Shove this  tube on to the  bullets  as they stand  on the board, and empty the tube  as often as it fills with  bul­ lets.            If   the groove    are not  too wide, -they should  not be more than  :h–inch wide, say twelve  to the inch,-this








method   will   give  perfect   lubrication.    Another   method about   equally   good  is  to  set  a  quantity of  bullets   in  a shallow   pan,  points  up, then   to   pour  melted   lubricant among  them  till  there  is sufficient  in the  pan to cover all






Fig. lOl. -Ten  shots by Mr. F. B. Crowninshield, at twenty yards, with a

Wurfilein Pistol.   Reduced from a bullseye 2 11-16 in.diameter.




the grooves; set  aside  till  lubricant is sufficiently cooled, then  use  the  tube  as  described   above  to remove surplus. Bullets so cast  and  lubricated will  do very  fine shooting either  with clean  or dirty  barr:el.”

Cartridges should  not  be exposed  to the sun, and should

be kept  in a dry,  cool place.


REVOLVER SHOOTING RECORD.                            155














WHEN revolver shooting  was introduced as  an  ad junct to rifle shooting, it was thought that the Standard American target for 200 yards  rifle practice was proper  for  revolver shooting   at  a  distance  of   twenty-five  yards.     A   match was first announced at the annual meeting  at  Creedmoor, in 1886, in which  there  were  three   scores  of  forty-eight out  of  a  possible fifty in five shots  secured.    There  were three scores  to count,  or possible  150  points.     The   three highest scores in this  match  were 143, 140, 134,  made  by C. E. Gillette with  a  Colt  .45  caliber  army   revolver  and factory  ammunition.   There  were five  scores  only  of five shots  each  in which the shots  were  all  inside  of  the  nine­ circle,  ‘vhich  is 5..[>-J0   inches  in  diameter.   A n1ontb later

the  Massachusetts Rifle Association  announced a revolver

match,   in   the   annual  fall   meeting  programme,    under similar   conditions, excepting  the   1natch  called  for   five scores to count.     As both  matches  were unlimited reentry matches,  the  best  three  scores of  the four  highest individ­ uals are taken  to compare  with  the  results  secured  at Creedmoor.     Four  scores are selected   because  the  person at  the  bead  of  the  li  t  was  a  professional  shot,  and  his skill at that  tin1e was considerably  in  advance   of  his competitors.

The second,  third,  and  fotu·th prize \vinners   secured  an

aggregate of 142, 142, 141.

The  professional  shot  was Chevalier Paine, \vbo  on  his sixth entry  secured the  possible  of  fifty  in five  shots  and two   scores  of  forty-nine,  making 148  out  of  a  possible





150,  or the fifteen shots  (not consecutive) in a 5-fo\  inch circle.     This  gentleman fired  forty  shots.     Of  this  num­ ber  there  ‘vere    twenty-seven in the  ten-circle,   which  is








Fig. 102.-Mr. W. W. Bennett.          Professional Pistol and Revolver Shot.




3fo-G0 inches in diameter.   Soon after this meeting revolver shooting sprang into  popularity, and  it  was  shown  by the shooting of  the members  of the  Massachusetts Rifle Asso­

ciation  that,  if revolver  shootiug was continued at t\venty­ five yards,  the  possible would  be secured  so  frequently  as to make  the sport   uninteresting. It is  worthy   of  record that  Mr.  A.   L.  Brackett of  that   association   made   the


REVOLVER  SHOOTLNG RECO RD.                            157


following    ten-shot   score     at    twenty-five     yards    on    the tandard  American target : –


10    10    10     10    10     10     10    8     10     10 = 98


It was decided  by  this  club  to  change  the  distance  to fifty yards.

Chevalier  Ira  Paine  was the  first  individual   known  to fire 100 shots on the Standard target  at this distance, which he did  October  15, 1886,  at Walnut Hill  range,  using  a

.44 caliber  Russian  model arn1y revolver  and  factory  am-

munition  made by Union Metallic  Cartridge Co.

The 100    hots were as follows : –



I         7 8



7 6 8 9 9 =76
9    10       8       7       8       9       6       9       5       8 = 79

.      9       9       7      8       7       9       7       6    10      6 =78

. .   9 5 8




10 10    10  = 82
. .






7 6 8     10 = 77
.   . 6 10





7 9 7       9 =so
9      9    10       8       6       9      7     10      9       7 =84


12     .  .  .

3         .   .

4             .

5             .

6             .


. .
. .
. .


7    .   .  .


8    .     .

9             .

10    .   .  .

9       6       9       9      6     10     10       8       7       9 = 82

10       8     10       7       8       8       8       6       9       6 =80

8       6       9       8       6       7       7       8       6       8 = 73



Total                                                                                              791



This score was considered  remarkable  at  the  time, but within   six   months   several   amateurs    surpassed  it,  Mr. J. B.  Fello,vs,  W. C. Johnston, Jr.,  and  A.  L.  Brackett recoriling April  25, 1887, in a 100-sbot match, respectively

837, 827, and 801 points.

The  first   person   who  attempted  to   equal   Chevalier Paine’s    record  was Major  C.  C.  Foster,  who  fired  100 shots   \vith  a  Colt  .38 caliber  double-action  revolver  on same target, at the same distance, at Walnut Hill,  Novem­ ber 20, 1886,  he securing  7 82  points.    The  next  attempt

at  raising  the  record ,was  by  Chevalier  Paine,  ‘vho shot



against  his  own  record  at  Walnut Hill    with    the    same weapon he used in the first fifty-yard  match.                 He shot  on

March 17, 1887,  with  the following  result:-


1 . . . .  



7 10 10 10 9 10


2  . . . . 7


6 7 6





3  . . . . 10


10 7 7





7 =85

4  …. 10     10        9        7        9         6         7      10        9        9=86

5  . . . . 10      10        6      10      10        8      10        7      10        9 =90

6  . . . .   9        8        7        8       7        9      10        6        8       7=79

7  . . . . 10         8       9        9        8      10        9        8        6        9 =86

8  . . . . 10        7        8        9      10        9      10      10        6        8=87

9  .  . . . 8        8       8         6      10        9        7        9      10        7 =82

10  …. 10      6       9     10       9       8     7     10       9       9=87



Total                                                                                               841



It will be observed that  seventy  of  the 100  shots  were bullseyes ;  twenty-nine of  the  shots were tens, or  in  the

3{0    circle.     The  first  ten  shots  broke  all  previous  ten­ shot  records; the fifth string counted  ninety,  and  was  at that   time  the  best  ten-shot  record  at  fifty   yards.    The

aggregate of  841 for the 100  shots  was  fifty  points  over his previous  record,  and  fifty-nine  points  more  than  had ever  been secured  by any  other  individual in  a 100 shot match.

This 100-shot  record  was unbroken  until  November  4,

1887; but  pn  May 21, 1887,  Mr.  W. W. Bennett  broke the ten-shot fifty yards’ record on the Standard American target, by recording  the following score at Walnut Hill:-



10      8    10      6     10       7     10    10     10    10 = 91




On  November  4,  1887,  Mr.  F.  E.  Bennett fired 100 shots  at  fifty  yards, with   a  Smith   &  Wesson   Russian model, .44 caliber army revolver, with factory ammunition,


REVOLVER  SHOOTING REOORD.                          159



with the declared  object of   breaking  the  100-shot  record. He scored  the  following  result : –


1 . 7 8 10 10 9 7 10 7 9 10 = 87
2 . 8 9 8 9 7 10 8 6 9 9= 83
3 . 6 10 9 8 10 10 9 8 10 7=87
4 .. 8 9 10 9 6 10 7 10 8 8 =85
5 . . 7 9 8 8 9 5 6 9 10 7=78
6 .. .. 9 10 8 7 10 10 8 10 6 9=87
7 .. . . 10 9 9 8 10 10 10 7 7 9=89
8 .. .. 10 9 9 7 9 9 7 10 8 7= 85
9 . . . .    9 10 7 9 10 7 8 9 7      10= 86
10 …. 10 8 9 10 8 8 10 9 9        9= go


Total                                                                                •           •      857




.This   score  was  sixteen   points   higher   than   any  pre- vious record.

On  November 14, 1887,  a second  match ‘ vas shot  by him,  under   similar  conditions as  the  first,  resulting   as follows: –


1 .’ . . . 7  


10 10 9 8 10 8 8 6= 85
2  . . . . 9 9 10 10 9 10 9 10 9 7 = 92
3 …. 10 9 10 10 8 9 10 9 9 7=91
4 . . . .   7 10 9 8 10 8 8 8 10 7= 85


. . •   .   7 9 9 10 8 10 10 10 9 9=91
6 …. 10 8 10 8 10 7 9 10 7 9= 88
7 … .  7 8 8 8 9 9 7 10 7=81
8 . . . .    7


10 5


8 8 9 9 9=83
9 . . •   . 9


10 10 7 10 10 10 9 8=92
10 .. .. 7 10 9 9 7 10 9 10 8 10 =89

Total     .                                              .   877




This aggregate  being  twenty  points higher  than  any  pre­

vious record.

On  November  25, 1887,  Mr.  F. E. Bennett fired  100 shots,  under   similar   conditions,   the   10-shot   aggregate being:-


85      89      87      86      88      81      95      89 = 852









He fell short  of  the  100-shot  record, but  broke the 10- shot record  by the following  score :-



10     10      10       9         9      10       n   10      9        !) = 95




In  November, 1887,  a wager was  made that  Mr.  I( E. Bennett would  equal or surpass  841 points or  better  for








l<“”ig. 103.-Sixty consecutive shots at twenty-five yards, with a Smith & Wesson revolver, by Mr. F. B. Crowninshield.                                          Target full  size.   Shot  in gallery

of Boston  Athletic Club.





six consecutive  days, firing 100 shots a day at  fifty yards, on  the  Standard American                  target,   using  factory  ammu-


REVOLVER  SHOOTING RECORD.                           161



nition.     He commenced  his task  December 5, and follow-

ing is the score in detail : –



December  5, 1887.


1 . . . . 6 10 8 10 7 10 10 10 10 10 =91
2  . . .. 8 10 9 10 7 9 9 9 10 8 =89
3  . . . .   9 10 10 6 9 10 9 10 10 10= 93
4  .  .. . 10 9 9 6 10 10 10 8 9 9 =90
5  . . . .   8 10 7 6 9 8 9 9 10 9 =85
6  . . . .   8 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 8=94
7  . . . . 7 9 10 10 6 9 10 8 7 6 =82
8  . . . . 10 10 9 10 7 9 8 9 7 9=88
9  …. 10 10 8 8 10 9 10 10 7 8 =90
10  . . . .  9 7 7 10 10 8 8 9 9 7=84

Total                                                                                           .   886



1 . 5 7 10 9 10 10 10 !)         9        8=87
2 . 8 9 10 7



10 10 10 10=89
3 .. 8 9 10 8 10


8 10 10 9=89
4 . 8. 9 10 7


8 9 9 8 10 = 85
5 . 9 10 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 =94
6 •  . . . 9 9 10 10


7 10 9 9 10=83
7 . . . . 6 7 9 10



10 9 9 6=84
8 . . . . 8 9 10 9


10 10 8 6 8=87
9  . … 10 10 8 9      10 10      10 9 8 8 =92
10  . . . . 8 6 7 8        7 9      10 8 6 8 =77


. 867

December  7,


1887 .

1 .. . . 10 8 9 0      10 6        6 9 6 7=71
2  . .         7 8 10 8        7 8        9 8 8 10 =83
3  . . . . 7 9 6 7      10 7        8 8 9 7=78
4 . .. . 7 9 10 7        9 10        7 9 10 6=84
5  .         . 8 8 8 9        9 8        8 10 9 0=86
6  . . .. 10 7 8 10      10 10      10 9 10 10= 94
7 . . . . 7 9 8 10        9 8      10 6 9 10= 86
7 8 7        7 10        9 0 8 7=80
9  . . . .    9 9 9 9      10 8       8 10


9 =90
10  . … 8 10 8 8        7 8        8 8 8 7 =80


December  6, 1887.

































8  .  . . . 8




Total     .                    •                                  •            •           .  832






Decembm· 8, 1887.

1 . . .  .   8        7      10        9        8        n     7        7      10        8 = 83

3  . .       . 10        5        9        8         …     10       8        9        8        6=78

2  …      8        7        7        9         0        8        7       10        9         8 =82



5  ..         8      10      10        8      10        7       10        0         9      10 = 91

6  ..        7       6        9        9        6     10      10      10        7      10= 84

8 . . .  . 9


8 10 10 10 10 6 10 10= 90
0 .  .  . . 0



9 7 8 D 6 9 10= 84
10 . . .  . 5


8 10 7 6 9 10 10 10= 81


7  . . . .   7        8        7        9        8        8        8        8        7      10= 80





Total      .                                              .   843



December  9 , 1887.

1. . . . . 10         7        9        9        7      10      10        8        7        8 = 85

2 . . . . 7 9 8 10 7 9 10 7 9 8 = 84
3 . . . . 8 8 10 9 9 10


8 9 10 = 90
4 . . . . 7 8 10 9 9 10 10 7 10 10 = 90
5 . . . . 7 8 10 8 9 9 10 9 9 8 = 87
6 .. .. 10 8 9 9 9 8


9 10 6 = 86
7 . . . . 9 10 7 9 8 10 10 9 8 8 = 88
8 . . . . 10 7 10 8 9 8


10 8 7= 85
9 . . . . 9 8 9 9 7 9


8 10 10 = 87
10 . . . . 7 7 9 8 10 7 10 8 10 10 = 86


Total                                                                                               868



December  10 , 1887.

2 . . . .     7 10 7 10 8 10 10 7 9 9 = 87
3 . . . . 10 9


9 8 7 8 8 10 = 83
4  . … 10      9       10      10        9        8      10        7      10       9=92
5 .  . . . 9 9 7 10 9 9 8 10 8 8 = 87
6 .. . . 10 8 10 10 10 9 7 9 9 8 = 90
7 .. . . 9 10 9 10 10 7 6 9 9 8 = 87
8 . . . . 9 7 10 6 10 8 10 9 8 8=85
!) . . •   . 9 10 6 9 10 10 10 9 10 10=93

. .  . .



6 7 9 9 9 5 8 10 10 9=82




1 . .  . .     9        8        8        9      10    10        9        9      10       8 = 90


















The  shooting of   Mr. F. E.  Bennett   attracted  the at- ten tion  of                   Chevalier   Paine    who,  on   December  9,  fired


REVOLVER SHOOTING RE CORD.                           163


100 shots, using a .38/44 caliber Smith & Wesson revolver, this arm  being the same as the .44 caliber in exterior, but is bored .38 caliber  instead of .44.   It has a straight shell, which extends  entirely  through the cylinder, coming flush with  the  end of  cylinder.     This  was a special arm, made to order, and  took specially  prepared  ammunition.   Only the aggregate  for 100  shots was preserved, which was 878 points.    This  was one  point  higher  than  had  previously been scored.

On  December 13 Chevalier   Paine  fired  190 shots with a  Smith  & Wesson  .44 caliber  revolver ; but  as 100-shot records were being compared,  we take  the first  100  shots which made the most favorable showing, and the 10-shot strings aggregated  as follows : –


90     92    87     89     89     85     92     85     85     91 = 882


The  next  trial  was  on  Thursday,  December  15,  using same  revolver   and   ammunition,  with   the  following  re­ sult: –


92     89     89     89     86     88     85    85     83    85 = 871


On  December  17  he again faced  the target,  firing 210 shots, the first and second 100 shots sho wing the following
















81    92



87 = 886
H !lG 90 89 91 86 87     8.3 89 86 = 888


The  last  100-shot  score  of  88S  being  two  point8  more than  any previous  record.     The  10-shot  record was also broken by two strings,  which aggregated  96 points ; higher by one point than  any previously  known  record.

On December 22 Chevalier  Paine fired 100  consecutive

shots  in  the  presence  of  the  author,  attempting to  beat all previous records.   The shooting  was done at the Narragansett  Gun   Club   grounds,   at   Providence,   R. I.





The   revolver   used  was  the   Smith  &  Wesson   Russian model  .44  caliber, with  factory  ammunition.    The  score was as follows : –




8 8 10 10 8 9 10 10 9 9 =91
9 9 7 10 9 9 7 7 10 10= 87
10 10 8 7 9 8 10 10 9 8=89
10 9 8 10 10 10 9 10 7 9=92
7 9 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 10 =86
10 7 8 9 10 10 10 9 10 9=92
10 8 10 10 10 10 8 9 9 10 =94
8 · 9 10 10 10 7 10 9 10 10 =93
10 8 9 9 10 8 10 8 7 10= 89
10 8 8 9 10 10 9 8 9 01 =91


1 .   .   .  .   .2    .

3    . . .

4    . .  . . .

5    .  . .   •      .

6    . .   . .   .

7    .

8    .

9    . . . . .

10    . . .  . .



Total                                                                         •                      904



This aggregate raised  the record  sixteen  points.



It was generally   supposed,  when  Chevalier   Ira  Paine secured   an   aggregate   of  904   points   on   the   Standard American  target   at  fifty yards   with  a  Smith   &  Wesson

.44 caliber revolver,  that  the 100-shot   record would not  be disturbed for some time.                            Mr. W. W. Bennett repeatedly stated  that  he would never attempt to break  his  brother’s record of  886 points, but  would contest against the record • of             any  other  individual.   When  it was announced that Chevalier  Paine  had secured  904  points, Mr. W. W. Ben­ nett  quietly  announced his  intention of     surpassing this record,  earnestly   went  to  work,  and,  in                 the  presence of reliable witnesses, rolled  up             he   unprecedented  record of

914 points, -ten  points higher  than    had  ever  been  pre­

viously  secured,  and  t \vice  during   the  shooting  equaled the best ten-shot record of                       ninety-six  points.

He shot at Walnut Hill range December 23, 1887,  using

a .44 caliber, single action Smith  & Wesson Russian  model army revolver,  loaded  with factory  ammunition  of            Union


REVOLVER  SHOOTING RECORD.                            165



9 10 10 10=96
9 10 8 7 =90
10 8 9 10=92
10 9 8 10=90


Metallic  Cartridge Co. make.       The  scores in detail are as follows:-




10 10 10 10 8




2. 8 10 10 9 9
3. 8 9 10 10 9
4. 8 9 10 9 10
5. 10 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 =96
6. 9 10 8 10 7 10 9 10 10 9 =92
7. 10 10 9 7 10 7 9 9 10 8 =89
8. 8 7 8 9 10 10 9 10 7 8 = 86
9. 9 8 10 8 10 9 10 10 10 9 =93




10 7 9 10 9 9 9 10 9 8 = 90





It should  here be recorded  that   Chevalier   Paine  on  his first and  second  trial  cleaned   his  revolver  between   every ten       shots.                     Mr.   F. E.  Bennett         in          all  of   his    shooting cleaned      only  between   eac}l ten  shots.        In       the    balance of   Chevalier     Paine’s          shooting   he      insisted      on  cleaning his  revolver   between         every  five  or  six       shots;     and  Mr. W. W.  Bennett, after  Chevalier Paine   departed from  the custom  of   cleaning between  each  ten  shots,  ran  a brush through the inside  of his  barrel  after  every  shot.                  There being  no  established  rules  for  pistol  and  revolver  shoot­ ing  in  regard   to  cleaning, the  results    were  accepted   as records      of            performances    with        revolvers.    It  is    also believed  that   Chevalier Paine’s shooting, as  well  as  Mr. W.  W.  Bennett’s, and  a  portion  of        Mr. F. E. Bennett’s shooting, was  done  with a    trigger           pull       of         less       than three  pounds.

It will  be seen  that  within   a  period  of two  years  the

possibilities   of  the  revolver had  been  proved  to  be con­ siderably  beyond  what  the  manufacturers of  the arms,  the makers  of   the  ammunition, and  the   experts  using   the weapons supposed  were its capabilities.





The  first  100-shot  record  was 791 points,  the  last  914

points,  or an increase  of 123  points.

In  order   to  carry  the  shooting at  fifty  yards  from  its commencement on the  Standard Am-erican  target to latest







]’ig.104.-Mr.F. B. Crowninshield, Boston.   Amateur Pistol and  Revolver  Shot.





known record  with no diversion,  the  author now finds it necessary to go back several months to chronicle an event worthy  of note.

It has been stated that  the first revolver  competition on

the  Standard  American   target  was  shot   at   twenty-five yards,  and  it has  been  shown  that   the  distance   was  too short  for that   target.   When   the  programme  of  the 1886


REVOLVER  SHOOTING RECORD.                           167


annual  meeting at  Creedmoor was  being arranged, it was proposed to use the 200-yard Standard American  target  at thirty  yards.                The author  urged  the gentlemen  in charge of     this tournament to use the 100-yard rifle target   at this distance,  and       by showing what had been accomplished on the  200-yard  target, it convinced  them  that  a 100-yard rifle  target  with  a  four-inch  bullseye  was  better  for  re­ volver or pistol shooting at  thirty yards ; and  that  target and      distance  were      selected      for  the     revolver   match          at Creedmoor, in 1887, and many of the rifle and pistol clubs throughout the  country   arranged   similar  matches.         The first  record  established            on       the  thirty-yard   pistol  target was in  a  five-shot  reentry match  at  the      pring  meeting of       the       Massachusetts      Rifle  Association,  in  June,  1887. The score of forty-three   out  of  a  possible fifty was made by Mr. W. W. Bennett, and  was  the  highest  score made during  the three  days’ tournament. It was the opinion of a majority of    revolver shooters at  that   time  that  this tar­ get  at  thirty yards was a  difficult  one to  roll  up a  high score on, and that  forty for  five shots  and  eighty  for  ten shots was good  shooting.     At  the annual  meeting of  the National  Rifle  Association  at  Creedmoor,  in  September,

1887,  the highest  scores recorded  at  thirty  yards  were by Ir. J. T. B. Collins, who secured  tln ee aggregates of forty­ fout, and Mr. G. L. Garrigues,  who also secured one score of forty-four,  this being the  highest  aggregate secured in five shots at that  time.         ·

At  the fall meeting  of the Massachusetts   Rifle Associa­ tion, Mr. F. E. Bennett won the first prize in the revolver competition,  with  the following scores : –


9 10     9     9     7 = 44

8 10  10     9     8 = 45

10    8     7 10  ]0 = 45

9     9     9     8 10 = 45

10 10  10    8 10 = 48







This  made forty-eight, the  best five-shot record.

The next  event  at  this  range  was  the  recording of  the following ten-shot  score  at  Walnut Hill  on  October   12,

1887, by Mr. F. E. Bennett:-


10    9 10     9     8     8 10 . 7 10     9 = 90



This  being  the  best  ten-shot   record.     This  shooting   was followed  by Chevalier Ira  Paine, who, in November, 1887, recorded  the same aggregate at  Walnut Hill.

A week  later   Mr. F. E. Bennett recorded   in a regular match  at  Walnut Hill  an aggregate. of 91.

On   April   4,  1888,   Mr.  F. E.  Bennett  made     at    the

Massachusetts Rifle Gallery, Boston, at thirty yards, Stand­

·ard  American   target, 100   out   of a possible 100,  which is the  best  known  score  on  record   at  that   distance.   This score  was shot  with  a light  charge  and  indoors,  and  is the only  one known  to be recorded   in  this  volume  made with any  but  factory charges  and  indoors.

The great  Paine-Bennett match  was  the  outcome  of a prolonged    newspaper    controversy  between   Mr.   F.   E. Bennett and  Chevalier Ira   Paine.   The  conditions of  the match  were as follows : –





It is agreed   by the undersigned to shoot a match  with  revolvers for  one thousand dollars  ($1000) a side, under  the following conditions:  600  shots, 100   shots    a   day  for   six   consecutive days,  beginning Monday, June  4, 1888,  and   ending  Saturday, June 9, 1888, at a distance of fifty  measured yards,  on the Stand­ ard  American 200-yard  rifle target,   Revolvers to be the Smith  & Wesson  .44 caliber, Russian model, with  three-pound pull, and not over six and one-half  inch barrel;  ammunition to be factory  made, in  unbroken boxes,  of  any  of  the  following  companies:  United States Cartridge Company, Union  Metallic  Cartridge Company, or the Winchester Repeating Arms Company.   The match  to be shot at  Springfield, Mass.    All   conditions of   the   match   not   herein


RE JTOLVER SHOOTIJ.YG  RECORDS.                               169


specified to be governed by the shooting rules of theNational Rifle Shooting As  ociation.                            Each  contestant to  choose  a  judge,  these two choosing a ref eree.                                 If the referee’s decision is disputed, the secretary of the  National Rifle Association of America shall make a decision  which   shall  be  final.                                           In addition to  the  stakes, the match  to be for th e championship of America.  Two hundred and fifty  dollars a side is  hereby  deposited with  the  Boston   Herald, which  is agreed  upon as stakeholder.   The  balance  of $750 a side shall  be placed  with  the  stakeholder on  or  before  Monday,  May

28;  but  it is understood that  $250  each, in addition to the amount

now on deposit,  shall  be deposited on or before Saturd ay, April  21,

1888.   The  match  shall   be play or pay;  that  is, either  party  fail­ ing to observe any  of the conditions herein agreed  to shall forfeit all money  deposited, and the  stakeholder is hereby authorized to pay  over the same to  the contracting party  who fulfils  the agree­ ment.










June 4, 1888, Springfield, 1’lass.





June 5, 1888, Springfield , :Niass. 879 887
Jun e 6, 1888, Springfield, Mass. 860 866
J uue 7, 1888, Providence,..R. I. 872 879
June 8, 1       , Providence, R.  I. Withdrew 878
June 9, 1 ‘     , Providence, R.  I. \Vithdrew 746


3,478             5,093





It will  be noticed in the above that   Paine  withdre’v  on the  fifth   day  of  the  contest.     He  made  a  protest,   and, according  to the conditions  of  the match, ‘vas referred   to the National Rifle Association  of  Am erica, which  decided against   the  protest,  and  the  match  was given  to  F. E. Bennett, who with it received the championship of America, which he holds at the present  time.





Some of  the  shooting in  practice   before  the  match  at

Walnut  Hill,   in  100-shot  series,   was  undoubtedly the










Fig.105.-Mr. F. E. Bennett.  Vinner of  the Revolver Championship of  America.






finest  ever  done in the worl.d with  a revolver, and  four  of the   100-shot   series  witnessed   by  the  writer   are   given, believing that  they  will long stand  unequaled.

This   shooting was    done  under   favorable   conditions;

that  is, a  perfect   revolver  was  used,  which  was  correctly sighted, and   had   a  fine  trigger  pull;  but   full   charge factory ammunition was shot.


REVOLVER  SHOOTiNG RECORDS.                          171


Score of  Mr. F. E. Bennett, shot  in practice  at  Walnut    .



9 9 10 9 9 9 10 8 9 9 = 91
10 10 9 10 8 7 10 10 7 10  = 91
8 8 8 10 8 9 10 8 10 8 =87
10 10 10 10 10 7 10 10 9 9 = 95
9 10 10 10 9 8 8 7 7 9 = 87
9 9 10 10 8 7 10 10 9 10  = 92
8 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10  = 96
8 9 9 10 10 8 10 8 10 8  = 90
9 9 9 9 10 9 10 8 10 8 = 91
10 7 7 10 9 6 10 10 8 10  = 87



9 8 10 7 8 10 8 9 9 10  = 8’3
9 10 8 9 9 9 10 9 10 8 = 91
9 9 10 7 10 10 8 10 8 8 = 89
9 9 10 9 10 8 8 10 10 7 = 90
10 7 9 9 8 10 8 9 8 9 =87
9 10 10 10 9 10 10 9 10 10  = 97
10 8 10 8 8 10 9 6 10 8  =87
10 9 10 9 8 9 10 9 10 9 = 93
10 9 10 10 10 9 10 10 10 10  = 98
9 9 8 8 8 10 9 8 10 10 = 89



9 10 10 9 7 10 10 10 9 9 = 93
8 10 10 10 10 10 10 7 8 9 = 92
10 10 8 7 7 9 10 9 10 10  = 90
10 8 9 10 10 7 8 9 9 10  = 90
10 8 9 10 9 8 I 9 10 10 10  = 93
9 10 9 8 9 9 10 10 9 10  = 93
10 8 9 10 10 7 10 10 10 10  = 94
8 9 9 8 10 10 9 7 8 10  = 88
9 10 9 9 10 10 6 9 9 9 = 90
10 9 10 10 10 7 10 9 10 7 = 92



7 9 10 10 9 9 9 10 10 8 = 91
10 9 7 10 10 8 7 10 10 9 = 90
9 10 8 9 7 8 9 8 9 9 = 86
9 9 9 9 9 10 10 9 8 10 = 92
10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 10 10 = 96
8 9 10 10 8 7 9 10 9 8  = 88
10    10    10      8       g .     8     10    10       9     10  = 94
10 10 7 10 9 10 9 7 9 9 = 90
8 10 8 9 9 10 10 9 10 8 = 91
8 9 10 10 8 10 10 10 9 10 = 94






The   populari ty  of  revolver shooting  developed   great proficiency  among  many  amateurs of  this  country.    Con­ spicuous among  them were  Massachusetts shooters  and California shooters, and  one Sergeant W. C. Johnston, Jr.,







Fig. 106.-Sergeant W. C. Johnstvn, Jr.            Creuited with the best known ten shot record with revolve1·at fifty yards.





of   the  National     Guard   of   :Nlassachusetts,  succeeded   on July 7,  1888,  in  making          a  perfect  score,  100  out  of       a possible  100,   pla.cing           the  ten  shots  of his  score  in                    the inner   carton       of               the  Standa1·cl American   target, which  is but inches  in  diameter.    The  shooting was  done at fifty yards  with  a regulation revolver with fine sights.        It


REVOLVER  SHOOTING RECORDS.                          173


is the first and  only perfect  score  made  in  America.     Not only did he accomplish  this feat,  but  after   the completion of  the score he made another trial  and  recorded  six  more consecutive tens,  thus  making  the  greatest run  of  tens  on record  which  has  never  since  been  equaled.   The  shoot­ ing  was duly  witnessed  by reliable  persons,  and  Sergeant Johnston  was  considered   a  very  fine  shot   both   with    a rifle and  revolver.   Having been a representative of the American  military   rifle  team  which  visited   England, his record·  was  recognized  by  the   press   and   the   shooting fraternity.       Sergeant _   Johnston himself  admitted that  he as holding ·well, but  believes  that   there  was  a  certain amount of good fortune which accompanied  his skill.

The  revolver    used  in  the  great   Paine-Bennett  match were   the  regulation army  revolvers of   .44  caliber,  but they  had fine sights  affixed to them.

As  the  m atch  created   a  great    deal  of  interest in  re­ volver  shooting, various  methods  were resorted  to to make high scores.   Revolver shooti11g also became popular  in rifle galleries,  and  as a result, trigger  pulls  were reduced   to a very  light   pull,  even  to  the  point  of  danger   from   acci­ dental discharge.   Shells  were loaded  with  light  charges, and  a  great   many amateurs succeeded   in recording high scores, sho.oting at various distances  il·om ten yards upward.

This  jockeying  with  revolvers  had  the  effect of  lessen­ ing   the   popularity  of  the   sport,   and   many   ambitious amateurs posed  before  the  country as  makers  of  fine re­ volver  records,   but  they  were  made,  in  many  instances, with   what   is   termed   by  some   ” toy ” charges.    They were able  to  shoot  such  light  charges  with  light  trigger pulls  and  a  deliberate aim, but  were unable   to shoot  with anything like  such  accuracy   the  regular weapon  with  a three-pound trigger pull and a full  charge.    Such  shooting is undoubtedly meritorious, but   I have always  considered





that  all revolver  shooting with reduced charges, fine sights, and  deliberate aim, especially  if  the  aim  be unlimited as to  time,  should  be  classed  as  pistol  shooting; and  such







Fig.107.-Ten shots at fifty  yards by Serg’t. J. J. Mountjoy. Sbotwitha Wur:tnein pistol at Philadelphia, Penn., Aug. 4,1893.                                               Reduced one  quarter.





views, I am glad  to say, are approved by many  intelligent sportsmen, and  members of the volunteer forces in this country.

















THERE are three reasons which, combined, made pistol shooting   popular  in America.     First, the  inexpensiveness of  the  ammunition  for  the  pistol, as compared  with  that for the revolver.   Second, the  ability  to  shoot  more shots with   accuracy, without  cleaning, in   a  pistol,  than   can be  done   with   a   revolver.   Third,  better   shooting  can be done  by  the  average person  with  a  pistol  than  with a  revolver.     When  these   facts   were  kno·wn  the   pistol became the  more  popular arm.    The  revolver   still   holds its popularity ; but  it is  reserved  for  more  practical  shoot­ ing, and  the  pistol  is the chosen arm for recreation.

On September 13, 1888, the writer   made a careful  test

of .22 caliber  pistols  at Walnut Hill, testing the same from

a rest ; and  it was  shown   that  a Stevens   pistol  with  the                ..

Union  Metallic   Cartridge  Company’s long-rifle  cartridge

would   shoot  finer  than   any  target in  use  among  pistol shooters  would measure.     In  a series of shots  fired at  fifty yards,  the  lateral  deviation wasli  inches   by  one  inch perpendicular.    This   so  clearly   demonstrated the  great

accuracy  of  the single-shot pistol  that  some of  the  expert marksmen  were  tempted  to make a trial  of the arm.

On  September  22, 1888, lr.  F. E.  Bennett fired  100 consecutive shots  at  Walnut Hill  on the  Standard Ameri­ can target at fifty yards, scoring  906 points.   There  were ninety-seven bullseyes  out  of 100  shots.     The  three  shots that  were not  bullseyes  were in the seven-rin g.

In the same year  at  the  fall  meeting   of the  Massachu­

setts Rifle Association,  there  was a match which called  for















lfig.108. -:1\’fr. Henr)’ S.  Harris, Boston.       Wim1er  of Pistol Championship of Massachusetts.  In a series of contests exten c1i11g :from June 16, 1892, to Dec. 30, 1893;  Mr. Harris winninp; ten  <lf the sixteen matches.


SOJfE PERJ!’ORJf.ANOES WITH  THE  PISTOL.                177



five  scores  of  five  shots  each.     The  winner   of   the  first prize  was  Mr.  W.  W.  Bennett,  whose  score  aggregated

239  points.    In   this  match    Mr. J. B. Fellows   made  a

perfect score  of  five  tens  or fifty  out  of  a  possible  fifty. Both  he and  Mr. Bennett used  Stevens .22 caliber  pistols with  ten-inch  barrels  and  the Union  Metallic Cartridge Company’s long-rifle cartridge.    This  n1ay be said to be the introduction  of  pistol  shooting in  America  at a range  of fifty  yards,  and  it also  meant   the revival   of  the sport of pistol  shooting which  had   been  intermittingly  popular, but seldom  before  \vas  the  range  greater  than  fifteen  or twenty  yards.

I have  kept  a caref ul record of the  performances out  of

doors  since  that   time,  with  some  few  records   of indoor shooting, but   rather than   declare   the   contents  of   this chapter a perfect  record  of  pistol shooting in America,  I choose to leave it on  record  as  some  of  the  best  known performances  upon  which  there  is  not a shadow  of  doubt as to  their  genuineness.








Jan.   12, Wilmington, Del., Nov.    10, Wilmington, Del., Dec.       3,            ”     ”




Feb.       15, Walnut Hill,  Mass., Mar.                 15,      ”     It             ”

”     26,        ”       ”      “

April      6, Wilmington, Del.,

May     12,         ”           ” ”      12,      ”      ” June                           2,                 ”            “

‘I             14, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

July     5, Haverhill, Mass.,

”      5, Wilmington, Del.,


E. J. Darlington .. ….96  95

E. J. Darlington ……95  95

,,          ”                  95



H. S. Harris. . ……..96

J. B. Fellows .. …. …94

H. S.  Harris… .. … ..94

E. J. DarI ington ……96  95 95

0. E. Garmency . ….. 95

H.  Simpson …. ……94

E. J. Darlington ….. .96

H. S. Harris …•…..96

H.  E.  Tuck ……….97  96 95 93

E. J. Darlington…..*99  96 9.3 91



* Highest  known  score   with  a  pistol.     Equaled  by H. S.  Harris, December 31, 1890,  and  January 6, 1894.







” ” Aug.


” ” ”



” ” Nov. “

26, Walnut Hill,  1\fass.,

26,       ”        ,,       ,,

30,       ”         ”        ”

2,         ”           ”          “

9,         ,,           ”         ,,

11, Wilmington, Del.,

13, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

10,  Wilmington, Del.,

24, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

4, Wilmington, Del.,

11,  Walnut Hill, Mas.,

11,  Wilmington, Del.,

248′,          ,’,’             “,,

10,         ”               ”

H. S. Harris….. .   . . .94

Maj.  C. W. Hinman…93

H. S. Harris ….. …. .94

”    ”   …. ……94

”        ”      .. . . . …..93

E. J. Darlington….. .95

H. S. Harris .. ….. . . . 93

E.  J. Darlin gton … …93

H. S. Harris……….94

Col. H. Simpson ……93

H. S. Harris .. . …. . . .96

E.  J. Darlington ……96 95

”           ”          ..94  g4 93 92 91 90

”            ”           …..93

”          ”           .. . .95  95



”    29′

”        ”       ”

”          ”       … ‘ .. . … 93




3, Wilmington, Del.,

20,         ”              .,

25,         ”               ”

31, Walnut Hill, Mass.,

E. J. Darlington ……95 ”      ,,       .. ….95

”          ”         . … ..94  93 92 92  90

H. S. Harris ………*99






Jan.     10, Wilmington, Del.,


E. J. Darlington … . ..93


” Feb. “

” “

31,  Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

7,      ”         ”       ,,

11,       ”        ”       ”

21,      ”        ,,        ”

14, Wilmington , Del.,

1\Iaj. C. W. Hinman …94 ”      ”       ,,        …93

H. S. Harris ……….93

”     ”    ……….93

E. J. Darlington.. … . 93 91

”          ”         ……96


28          ”              ”


”           ”         .. … .93


7,          ”              ”

”       4, Waln ut  Hill,  Mass.,

Maj.  C. W. Hinman .. 93


”     28′

”        ”       ”

”        ”           ”       ..96


April    3, Haverhill, Mass.,

”     18, Wilmington, Del.,

B. Dimock .. ……….96

H. Simpson ……… .93

E.  J. Darlington …. . . 93


”     18′ Wal  ” t Hill,


H. S. Harris …… ….94


22,         nu            Ma


”    25,

”         ”       ”

Maj.  C. W. Hinman .. 93





2,       ”          ”        “

18, Haverhill , Mass.,

23, Philadelphia, Penn.,

25, Wilmington,  Del.,

H. S. Harris ….. .. . ..93

B. Dimock ….. …… 94

E. T. Travis ………. 92

E. J. Darlington ….. .93 92 91 90  91



Aug.   22,          ”               ”

,,           “‘

……96  94


”      29,          ”              ” Sept.            5,         ”                 ” ”   12,      ”       “

”                  H                • ,••  , • 95 Q3 91

”            ”         •.. .•.92  92 92 ”      ”       ….. .92 92 91


” Oct. “


19, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

3        ,,          ”       “

3,’ Wilmington, Del.,

10,  Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

H. S. Harris…   . • •…95

J. B. Fellows ………93

E. J. Darlington ……92  91 90  90

H. S. Harris …… … .93



* Best  10-sbot  score  with  single-shot pistol  on  record , equaling score

of E. J. Darlington , July  5, 1890.






Oct.    17, Wilmington, Del.,

H. Simpson …. …….97



17,         ”              ,,

17, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

31,  \Vilmington, Del.,

E. J. Darlington ……93

H. S. Harris ….. …..93

E. J. Darlington ….. .93




I(                                 31′

”           ”         ”

”      ”      • • • • • • • •   9-:1:

J. B. Fellows .. . .. . …93




31,         ”           ”         ”

7,       ”        ”       “

14,       ”         ”       ”


21, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

H. S. Harris ……. …96

J. B. Fellows … . . …. 94


H. S. Harris …. .. ….94


”    21′

”           ”         ”

J. B. Fellows …. …..93


” ” Dec.


23,         ”           ”         ”

23,         ”           ”          ”

27, Wilmington, Del.,

5,  Walnut  Bill, Mass.,

25, Wilmington, Del.,

25, \Valnut  Hill,  Mass.,

H. S. Harris … … ….93

”            ,,     … …….93

E. J. Darlington……94

H.  S. Harris … . … . ..95

E. J. Darlington….. .95

E. E. Patridge …. . . ..95



”     25,

”    25,

”            ”          ”

”      ”

”      ”       ”

Sumner Paine .. .. . . ..95

H. S. Harris ……….93

B.  Dimock …… . ….93


,,     19,

”      ”       E. E. Patridge . . . …..93


”     26,

”      ”       ”

”        ”



• • • •  • • • • 9t)


Jan.        9, Wal nut Hill, Mass.,

Sumner Paine .. . …..93


”        16,

‘             ”          ”

E. E. Patridge . ……. 94 93


”      30,       ”         ”       ” Feb.                    6,      ”       ”       ” ”   6, Wilmington, Del.,

”        13, Walnut Hill, Mass.,

”       29,         II                       H                   H

”       20,         ”           ”         ” ”   22,        ”         ”         ”

”         22,         ”           ”         “

”        27,        ”             ”         “


”      12,         ”           ”         ” ”   16,       ”          ,,        “

,,      19,       ”         ”

”      26,         ”           ”         “

,,      26,         ”           ”        ,,

”      26,         ”            ”         “

”     30,       ”         ,,        “

”     30,       ”        ”       ” April                  2, Wilmington, Del.,

H. S. Harris . .. .. …..94

”       ”     …….. ..93 93

E.  J. Darlington …•..96

H. S. Harris . ….. .. ..95  93

E. E. Patridge ……..95  93

H. S. Harris ….. . ….93

Sumner Paine …. ….94

E. E. Patridge ……..96  93

Maj. C. C. Foster.. ….93


J. B. Fellows . . .. …..95

H. S. Harris ……….95  93 93

E. E. Patridge … . ….94 ”  ,,        ……. . 94

H. S. Harris .. . …. . ..94

J. B. Fellows ………93

E. E. Patridge ……..94  94

H. S. Harris………. 93

E. J. Darlington . . .. . .93


”      13,

Walnut Hill,   lass.,

J. B. Fello ws………94


”   7,      ,,         ”    ”

”  13,     ( (            ”   ,,

,,    16,       ”    ”        ”

”  13,       ”     ”   ” ”  23,       ”    ”   ” ”  23,       ”    ”   ” ”  27,       ”    ”   ”

,,    27,       ”    ”   ”

E. E. Patridge ……. .95

F. B. Crowninsbield…95  94

H. S. Harris ……. …94  94

Sumner Paine .. . . •••.94

”            ”    ……..96

F. B. Cro wninshield. ..94  94

H. S. Harris .. ……..96  94

Sumner Paine ……..93


















Fig. 109.-Score ninety-nine out  of  a possible hundred.          Shot by Mr.  Henry S.

Harris, in Pi tol  1\Iatch of 1890,  at Walnut Hill, 1\Iass.,  with a Diamond

Model Stevens Pistol  and Union .Metallic  Cartridge Co.’s  .22 caliber

Long-Rifle Cartridges.   Distance  fifty  yards;   target   full  size.

Highest score made durmg the  year.










” ” ”

” ”



7, Wilmington, Del.,

28, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

30,         ”            ”         “

4,         ”            ”         “

4,         ”            ”         “

9,         ”           ”        “

11,        ”            ”         ‘1

8, Philadelphia, Penn.,

11, Wilmington, Del.,

17,  Philadelphia, Penn.,

22, Walnut Hill, Mass.,

4      II                           ”                 ‘ I

E. J. Darlington . .. …96  95

F. B. Crowninshield…94

Maj. C. W. Hinman …94

F. B. Crowninshield.. .96

Sumner Paine ……..95

H. S. Harris …… . …93

F. B. Crowninshield…93

H.  J. Mehard  ……..94

E.  J. Darlington ……93

H. J. Mehard ……..93

H. S. Harris ………95

G. R. Russell ……. .. 95


”     4,’

I (                         d             (I

H. S. Harris …….. ..94


” ” “&I

6,         ”           ”         ”

9,       H               ”            H

9,         ”           ”         Cl

9, Philadelphia, Penn.,

2, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

4 I                  I ‘            , , , , 0 , , , , , 93 93 94  94

G. R. Russell .. .. …..94

Dr.  Louis  Bell . …….93  93

H. J. Mehard .. . .. …96

Dr.  Louis Bell ……. .95 94


I C          10,

”         ”       ”

H. S. Harris.. ……..94


” ” ”



” ” Sept.

” ” ”

16,        ”            ”        ”

16,        ”           ”         ”

16,  Wilmin gton,  Del.,

23,  Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

30, Wilmington, D el.,

30,  Walnut  Hill, Mass.,

6          ”           ”         .,

16′,         ”           ”         ”

27,         ”           ”         ”

3,      U                         I I                    “


5        ”          ”       ,,10,       ‘1                        11                  ,,

10,       ”         ,,       ”

15, Wilmington, Del.,

17, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

F. B. Crowninshield…95  95

Dr.  Louis  Bell …. .. ..94  94

E. J. Darlington .. …. 93

Dr.  Louis Bell ….. . . .95

E. J. Darlington ……95

J. E. Kelly …….. . . .93

Dr.  Louis  Bell.; …. . .94 93

”          ”         ”    .. . . . . .94 95

C I                   C I                    I I         •  • • • •   • • 95  94

”       ”       ” ..•. . ..95  94

J. B. Fellows ………95

Dr. Louis  Bell….. …95

J. B. Fellows . …. ….93

E.  J. Darlington….. .94 93

H. S. Harris ……… .95


”    24,

”         ”       ”

”     ”   •…..• …94


”    28,         ”            ,,        ”

I C                   ”

……….97  93



8,       ”         ”       ”

”     ”    … … ….95




” “,,



8,         H                      I’                “

8,       ”          ”       “

12,      ”         ”       “

15,        H                      I I                  I I

14, Wilmington , Del.,

21, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

F. B. Crowninshield ..93  93

J. B. Fellows…. .. .. .93

H. S. Harris. . . … ….93

Dr.  Louis  Hell .. . …..96  93

E. J. Darlinp;ton ……9i

F. B. Crowninshield.. .93


”    29′

”        ”       ”

”                  ”

H     . Harri

…96  93




19,      ”         ,,       11

. S            s ….





” ” “u



24,       ”          ”       ‘1

7,       ”         ‘I     “

7,       ”        ,,        “

10,      ”          ”        “

17,      ”         ”        “

17,      ”        ”      “

26, Wilmington, Del.,

31, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,


I I              I I          • • • • • • • • •  • 94

Maj. C. C. Foster ….. f)6

H. S. Harris . . . … ….93  93 94

Maj.  C. W. Hinman .. 93

G. R. Russell ………97

J. B. Fellows………93

E. J. Darlington …. ..96

H. S. Harris …. . ….95 94








Jan.       7, Walnut Hill, Mass., ”         18,     ”       ”       ”

,,     14,       ,,        ”   ”


”       21′        ”    ”    ” ”      21,       ”      ,,    ”

Feb.       4,       ”    ”   ” ”                  4,       ”     ”    ” ”   18,       ”      ”   ”

H          22,       I C                             H          H

”   23,       ”     ”   ”

,,     23,       ”    ”   ”

”       23,       ”    ”    ” ”       21,       ”    ,,        ” ”  25, Wilmington, Del.,

March    1,  Walnut Hill,  Mass.,


H. S.  Harris ….. .. ..94  93

J. B. Fellows…. . . .. .93

H. S. Harris ………96

”       ”   ………95

J. B. Fellows…….. .93

B. Dimock …. … … .93

J. B. Fellows… •…. .93

”        ”    ………93

H. S.  Harris…….. ..94

J. B. Fellows…. …..94  93

H. S. Harris….. . ….95  94  93

Maj. C. W. Hinman….94

H. S.  Harris.. . . …. ..94

E. J. Darlington ……98

H. S. Harris ……….93  93


”       21,

”           ”        ”

J. B. Fellows….. ….95  95


” ” ” ” “,,

15,        ”           ”         ”

18,       ”         ”       ”

18,       ”         ”       ”

18,       ,,          ”       ”

18,       ”          ,,       ”

18,       ”        ”       ”

H. S. Harris.. . …….94  93 93

”         ,,   …… .• ..95  90

J. B. Fellows.. . …. ..95  94

Maj.  C. W. Hinman…93

Maj.  C. C. Foster .. .. .93

H. S.  Harris…… .. ..95  96 96


”     25,       ”         ,,        ”

April     9, San  Francisco, Cal.,

”       12,  Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

”         ”    …. …… 94  94 94

F. 0. Young. …… …93

H. S. Harris.. . … . .. .94 94


”     23, Philadelphia, Pa.,

”    29, Walnut Hill,  Mass. ,

May,    20,         ”            ”         ”

”       24,         ”           ”         ”

”    30,        ”            ”          ”

II. J. Mehard ……..95

J. B. Fellows… …. .. 94

H. S.  Harris.. …… . .93 94 95

”         ”     . ….. ….94  95

”         ”     … . ……95


June     2,         ”           ”         ”

Dr. Louis  Bell .. .. ….95





” ” ” “,,

· July

10, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

17,       ,,          ”       ”

24,         ”            ”          ”

24,         ”            ”          ”

24,         ”           ”         ”

24,         ,,           ”         ”

4, Haubstadt, Ind.,

5, Springfield, Mass.,

H. S. Harris……….93

Maj. C. W. Hinman …93

H. 8. Harris. …… . ..94

B. Dimock………. ..93

J. B. Fellows…. … ..93

F. 0. Young .. . … ….93

G. C. Littlepage . . .. ..96

C. S. Axtell .. . …….92


“,,        8′       ”             ”

J. Goodrich ……. .. .93


8, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,



”     15, Springfield,  Mass.,20, IIaverhill, Mass.,

22, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

29′     “.   ”        ”

F. B. Crowninshield…95

Z. C. Talbot ……….91

B. Dimock ………. .93 95 98

A. L. Brackett …….. 91

J. B. Fellows .. . . …..92


”     29,       ”          ,,       ”    4, Philadelphia, Penn.,

”        5, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

”      5,         ”           ”        ”

”      9, Springfield, Mass.,

”    12,  Walnut Hill,  Mass.,

”     26, Wilmington, Del.,

A. L. Brackett… . … .91

J. J. Mountjoy .. . ….94

H. S. Harris ……….93

A. L. Brackett…. ….91

C. S.  Axtell …… ….91

faj. C. W. Hinman…93

E. J. Darlington ..•..• 94 92


SO!JIE PERFOR f.AJVCES WITH  THE  P I STOL.                183



Sept.      4, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,      H. S. Harris ……… .95



6, Springfield, Mass.,         C. S. Axtell . ………92  91

13,           ”         ”           ”       ”   . ………94


”   16,        ”     ”    Z. C. Talbot ……….92

”  20,            ”     ”     C. S. Axtell ……….93

”   30, Wilmington, Del.,        E. J. Darlington ……91 92 91 90

”   30, Walnut IIilJ,  Mass.,      Z. C. Talbot ……. …93

Oct.       7,  ”       ”      ”        H.S. Harris………. 94

”   7,  ”    ”   ”     F. B.  Crowninshield ..93

”   14,    ”    ”   ”     H. S. Harris….. …..96 ”   14,       ”    ”   ”    C. F.  A. Armstrong…95 ”  20,       ”    ”   ”    B .S. Harris.. …….. 94



20,       ”      ”     ”        C. F. A.Armstrong ….92

21,       ”     ”     ”         J. B. Fellows… ……94



Nov.      4,  ”     ”       ”           ”     ,,    …. .. . . . 95

”    21,       ”       ”      ”        H. S. Harris. . .. .. . . . . 94″     11,      ”      ”       ,,       Maj. C. W. Hinman…96



11,       ”      ”     ”             J. H. Fellows …. . ….95  93

11,      ”        ”       ‘ c                H. S. Harris… …. ..94  93




”   11,    ”    ”    ”     F. C. Pearl… . . . …..91  90

”                           ”

”   18,      ”    ”    ”    C. F. A.Armstrong….93

”    30,       .’        ”     ”         ”       ”   ….•…. .93 92

18,                  ”               J. Hadley …….. . . ..93″  25,       ”    ”   ”     :a::. S. Harris….. .. . ..94


Dec.      2,       ”       ”     ,,        ‘;              ”   . ….. . .. .94 94

,,             ,,         ,,

”   2,       ”   H        ”     F. C. Pearl. .. .. . . ….93 ”   2,              ”   ”     J. Hadley .. … . …… 92 ”      Springfield, Mass.,           C. S. Axtel. ….. . .. .*97 ”  23, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,      H. S. Harris.. .. . …..95″  25,                   ”              ”  .. .. . … ..93 95

”  30,       c ‘     ”   ”       ”   ” .. … . . .. .94 95





Jan.      6, Walnut Hill,  1\Iass.,


H. S. Harris. …….. .99








Nov. 3, Waln ut Ilill, Mass., A. L. Brackett, 853.

Nov. 10, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,  F. E.  Bennett, 934, which  was  the   best professional record  at  that time.




Jan. 21,  Williamsport, Penn., N. A. Hughes, 821.



* Date not known.

















Fig. 110. -M r. W. \\.Bennett.           Professiona l Revoh•cr an<l Pistol Shot.






May 19, Wilmington, Del., E. J. Darlington,  8 9,  94  bullseyes  out  of

100 shots.

July  28, Castile,  N.Y., W. E. Carlin, 913, run  of 55 consecutive bulls­


Sept.  5, Walnut Hil1,  Mass.,  F. E.  Bennett, 929.

Sept.  10,  Walnut  Hill,   Mass.,  F. E.  Bennett, 936, the   best   known record.


July, 7, Walnut I:Iill, Mass., Dr.  Louis Bell,  901.



Oct. 13, Walnut llill, 1\Iass., C. F. A. Armstrong, 850.




Fig. 111.-Ten con  ecutive shot  at fifty yards, by .Mr. F. B. Crowninshield, at

Walnut Hill, l\Ia  s., June 4, 1 92, with a SteYens Goulcll\lodel Pi  tol, .22 caliber; score 96.   Target reduced to one quarter original size.






Jan. 19,  Troy,  Kan.,  Dr.  R. S. Dinsmore, 903.


100-SHOT .b!A.TCllES, 50  Y.A.RDS1   STANDARD      A.MEHIC.A.N   T.A.RGET.


May 5, Bellevue, Ky.,  Ben.  Copeland , 879.

”   5,

Chas. Wellinger, 852.
”   5,

E.  M. Brumbach, 824.







Nov. 10, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,  W. W. Bennett, 470, which   is the  best professional record.

Nov. 24, Walnut Hill, Mass.;J. B. Fellows, 456.



Feb.  27, Troy,  Kan., Dr. R. S. Dinsmore,  458. March 23, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,  F. E. Bennett,  464. March 16, Troy,  Kan., Dr.  R. S. Dinsmore, 451.

March  25, Walnut Hill, Mass.,  J. B. Fellows, 455, 49 out of  50 shots bullseyes.

May 7, Haverhill, Mass.,  H. E. Tuck, 447, including a run  of  30 con­

secutive bullseyes.

May  13, Troy,   Kan., Dr.  R.  S. Dinsmore, 463,  47 out   of  50  shots bullseyes.


Jan. 12, Wilmington, Del.,  E. J. Darlington,  454. Feb. 18,  Bellevue, Ky.,  Ben.  Copeland, 4-!2.

”   18,        ”         ”     E.  1. Brumbach, 4i0. ”   18,     ”       ”      }”‘rank Speth, 412.

”   22, Haverhill, Mass.,  H. E. Tuck, 453.

”   22,

B. Dimock,  448.
May    3,

”         ”       466.

H     30,          ”             ”       ”         ”       436.

Aug. 28, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,  F.  E. Bennett,  452.



.April 8, Walnut Hill,  lVIass., H. S. Harris, 450.


Jan. 20, Walnut Hill,   Iass., H. S. Harris, 451.


”   20, E. E. Patridge,  449.
”   20,

Major  C. C. Foster, 440.
”   22, Sumner Paine, 461.
”   22, E. E. Patridge,  453.
Mar.16, H. S. Harris, 462.
•June  4,

Sept. 4,

Sumner Paine, 462.

”         ”     . 459.


Feb. 20,       ”          ”        ”         ”         ”       455.













Jan. 25, Barnard, Mo., W. T. Whiteford vs. R. B. Power -Whiteford

420, Power 381.

Feb. 15, W. T. Whiteford and  R. B. Power, vs. N. A. Hughes and  C. S.

Steuber -Whiteford   4JO, Power 377; total, 787.      Hughes 407, Steuber

388;  total, 795.

Feb. 21, W. T.  Whiteford vs. G. I. Royce- Whiteford 417, Royce 4Jo.

April24, G. I. Royce vs. W. T. Whiteford-Royce 410, vVbiteford 426. Aug. 5, telegraph match, H.  E. Tuck, Haverhill, Mass.,  vs. Dr. R. S.

Dinsmore, Troy,  Kan.-Tuck 439, Dinsmore-.





Aug. 10, Coney Island, near  Cincinnati, 0.,  J. B. Copeland  vs. J. B. Robertson, for  championship of  Kentucky-Copeland 428, Robertson


Oct. 8, Wilmington, Del., E. J. Darlington 426, H. Simpson  425.







July     6, Walnut Hill,  Mass.,  H. S. Harris, 280. Dec.  7,       ”            ”       ”         ”       ”          ”




Jan. 18, Walnut  Hill;Mass., H. S. Harris, 265. Feb. 21,    ”        ”                    ”         ”       258. Mar. 12, San Francisco, Cal.,  Col. S. I. Kello  g, 270.

”    15, Walnut Hill,  Mass., H. S. Harris, 276.

” 29,       ”    ”   ”     ”     ”  275. April   2, San Francisco, Cal.,  F. 0. Young,  269. May 10, Walnut  Hill, Mass., H. S. Harris,  272.



Oct. 14,

Dec.    2,

”    30,



”   20,      ”        ”        ”         ”       ”      282. ”       30,     ”      ”         ”                  ”         ”       277.







1892 and ’93.


Winners of  the  championship of Massachusetts.     Conditions, 30 shots, at  50 yards,  on  Standard  American target.



June 16, F. D. Crowninshield …….. . …. …… . . …. …… …..266

Oct.  29, H. S. Harris . … …… …. … . .. . ………. …… ……269

Dec.     3, Sumner  Paine . … ……….. . . …. …. . . ………. ….25 9




Jan.     7, H. S. Harris …. ……………. . . …… …. …. … …. 266

Feb.    4, F. B. Crowninshield ….. .. … ……… ……. . ……. ..260

Mar.   4, H. S.  Harris . ……………………. …. . …. …. …. 262

”     18,        ”           (‘  . .. . . …. … . … .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . …. ……272

April 15,     ”           ” ……… …….. …… . ………. . . ………272

May  27,      ”         ” ……………….. ……… … …. . …… 268

June 24, B. Dimock. . ………. … … .. …….. ……………..264

July    8, F. B. Crowninshield …. ……… . . ….. …………….267

Oct.     7, H. S. Harris . …. …. ……. . … , .. …… . .. .. . …… ..265

‘ ”    28′        ”         ”       .. . . . … . . . . . .. .. … . .. .. …. . .. . . . … . ….264

Nov.25,         ”          ”        .. …… . ……. . ….. .. . ……… 267

Dec.   9, J. T.  Humphrey …. .•. ….. ….. . …………………251

”     30, H. S. Harris . … ……. ………………………..248

Won  by H. S. Harris, Dec. 30, 1893,









Jun e 1, Spring  Meeting  of  Massachusetts Rifle  Association -Pistol Match,  at  50 yards,   7 shots   to a  score, 5 scores  to  count, Standard American  target, possible 350 :-

H.  E. Tuck .• • . ….1st -330 Z. C. Talbot …. . ….2d -306



June 17, Spring  Meeting of Massachusetts Rifle  Association-Pjstol Match,  at  50 yards,  7 shots  to  a score,   5 scores  to  count,   Standard American  target, possible 350 :-

D. A. Allen ……..1st-323   B. Dimock ….. . … . . 2d-321




June 16-18,  Spring  Meeting  of  Massachusetts  Rifle  Association­ Pistol  Match,  at 50 yards, 7 shots to a score, 5 scores to colmt, StandaTd American  target, possible 350:-

E. E. Patridge ……1st-331    Sumner  Paine ……..3d -322

F. B. Crowninshield.2d -326


SHOOTING AT  LONG  RANGE.                            189








PISTOL  AND  REVOLVER  SHOOTING  AT   LONG   RANGE. PISTOL  and  revolver  shooting  has  been  almost  wholly

confined  to  short  range,  both  in    America    and    Europe.

Occasional  reports have  reached  this country  of shooting in Austria  to a distance of about 400 yards.    This shooting was  done with  heavy  single-shot  pistols,  weighing  from three  to five pounds,  of about .40 caliber, fitted with sights capable of very fine adjustment, with  set  triggers  and ap­ pliances to aid in securing  good results.

To learn the capabilities  of   an  American  made single­

shot  pistol, the author  purchased  a pair of the Remingtons, with  twelve-inch  barrels, .32  caliber,  and  chatnbered  for the  cartridge   made  by  the  Winchester  Repeating   Arms Co., for  the .32 caliber repeating rifle ;  the  charge  being twenty   grains  of           powder  and  115  grains  of                               lead.             The sights fitted  to these pistols were very crude, and not suit­ able for the work attempted. With bet tee sights, doubtless much finer results would be chronicled.            The first attempt at long range shooting  with  these pistols was made by Mr.

W.  vV. Bennett, at  Walnut Hill.        He shot  on  the  fifty­

yard Standard American  revolver  target,  at  a distance  of seventy-five yards, scoring  as follows : –


8 10  5 10  9 10  9  9  8  7 = 85



Falling  back to one hundred  yards and  using   the same target, he made the following scores:-


5 7  7 7    8  4 5  9  8 7 = 66

10  5  5  5 10  8 5  5  7  7 = 67







Nineteen of  the  twenty shots   being  in  a  circle  of 19r6 8lf inches.     He then  proceeded   to  the  200 yard  firing  point, where   military  marksmen   were   practicing, and   several times scored  in  ten shots  forty-two points  out  of fifty.Considerable difficulty  was  experienced in  sighting on the  eight-inch bullseye  at a  distance of  200  yards,  and  a trial  was given  on  the second  class  target, which  has the following  dimensions : –


Size of target, 6 x 6 feet.

Bullseye, circular, 22 inches  in diameter.


Center, 38

Inner, 54

Outer, remainder of target.


The  first trial  was at a distance of 150  yards, where  the following  scores  were made:-


Six  shots,  possible thirty.

5     5    5     5    5    4 = 29


200  yards.

3    5     4     5     5    5 = 27


f50  yards.

3     4     4     3   · s    5 = 24


300  yards.

2     5     2     3     3     5 = 20


350  gards.

5    5     3     4     3     4 = 24


All  of the above  shooting was  done  off-hand,  with  the right  arm fully  extended.

It was generally believed  among  the  expert  pistol shots

the author  has  met,  that   the  modern   American   revolver could  not  be depended  on much  beyond seventy-five  yards, and  it was thought useless to try  to accomplish  good work beyond.


SHOOTING AT  LO.llG  RANGE.                                     191


On October 27, 1887, Chevalier Paine devoted  the entire day, in  company  with  the  writer   in experimen ting  with the revolver at Walnut Hill.     Among  the  nu merous  ex­ periments   tried   was   shooting  with   Smith   &   Wesson








Fig.112.-1\Ir. E. T. Travis.         ReYolver and  Pistol Shot, Philadelphia, Penn.





revolvers,  at long range.    It was decided  to shoot  on  the second-class  target, commencing  at 125  yards  and  f alling back until it \vas thought the  limit  of  accuracy  with  the revolver was found.  It was agreed  that  each one  should take  sighting-shots at the several distances until  the  target







was hit,  the first shot striking the target and  the following five to count.

The  result was as follows:-


No 1.                                                              No.2.


125 yards.

3  2 5  4  5  5 = 24                               245545=25



















5 =




150 yards.  

















4 =




















5 =




200 ya1·ds.  
















3 =




















3 =




























0 =


























0 =

























4 =







In  some eases the first  sighting shot  struck   the  target. At  300  yards  it  took  three  shots  from one  party to  find the  target;  at   all   other   times  one  or   two   shots   were sufficient.    The  scores  given   above  are  not  intended to show   excellence  in   1narksmanship,  but   to   record   the results obtained  at  the first trial  by persons  unacquainted with  the range of tbe  revolver  and  the  sights.  The ammunition used  was a condemned   lot  sent   to the  range by  mistake,  but   which,  doubtless, was  better   than  sup­ posed  to be.    It had  been  loaded  several  years, and  the lubricant was  hard,  and  in many  cases partially detached from  the  bullet.   After   the first  score  had  been secured at   the   several  distances,   Chevalier  Paine  shot   at   200 yards,  and  secured   twenty-nine  out  of  a  possible   thirty,

.making five bullseyes and one center.

Two  weeks later, Mr. F.  E. Bennett, with a .44 caliber


SHOOTING AT  LONG RANGE.                                   193


Russian  model Smith  & Wesson  revolver, shot  over about the same distances, with  the following results :-



fd class  target.150  yards.

5     5     5     5     5     5 = 30


200  yards.

5     2     4     0     4     5 = 20


250  yards.

3     4     5     4     3     0 = 19


900  yards.

53    0     0     0    0=8



If   the revolver is properly  sighted, there  is little doubt that  good shooting with  this arm can be done  up to about –

300  yards,  under  favorable weather   conditions.    With  a single-shot  pistol  it  has  been shown  that good work  can be done at  400  yards.     The  revolver being  a more practi­ cal weapon  than  the  pistol,  it is likely that  the single-shot pistol  will  in future be  confined  almost   wholly  to  indoor target practice, and  the  revolver will  be used  exclusively in  many clubs who  shoot  their  matches  out  of  doors.    It has   been   proven   that   the  revolver is  a   powerful   and accurate weapon from  ten  to  250  yards.    The  results  of experiments ‘vhich   have   been  recorded   in  this   chapter were  made with   the  object  of  showing   that   a marksman or  soldier  with  ordinary skill,  ought   to  hit  many   times, with  a shot  from  an army  revolver,  a standing object  the size of a mounted  cavalryman, from fifty  to  50 yards  off.

As  stated, the  results given  in  this  chapter were  the

first attempts with  no previous  knowledge of the range  of the  weapon, but  a  year  later   while  Chevalier   Paine  was in  England, he  gave  a similar  exhibition at  Wimbledon, and  it  was considered as worthy  of  record  in  the records





of   the   National   Rifle   Association    of   Great    Britain. With the  sights   used  on  a  Smith   &  Wesson  .44  caliber Russian  model revolver at  thirty and  fifty  yards,  one can shoot  up to  250 yards  without aiming  off the  target.






Fig. 113.-Ten shots at fifty yards, by Mr. E. T. Travis, with a Wurffiein Pistol.

Shot at Philadelphia, Penn., July 23, 181.           Target reduced one quarter.




I do  not  consider   the  practice   of  pistol  and  revolver firing  at   long  rauge   of  much  practical value.     Both  of these  arms  are  intended for  short   range  work, and  their short  barrels  give the projectile but  little force as compared with   bullets   shot   from  rifle  barrels.     A   bullet   from  a pistol or revolver  has so little killing   power  when shot  at a range  of  200 yards,  as to make it of  little use.


















I HAVE endeavored to  show in  the  preceding chapters that   not   many  years  ago  an  impression prevailed that pistols  were extremely difficult  to  shoot  accurately; that revolvers  did not  possess much  accuracy, and few, if  any individuals, could shoot  them with  anything like accuracy, all of which  has  been  shown  to  be  incorrect.   A revival of the sport  of  pistol  and  revolver shooting demonstrated both   arms   to   be  extremely  accurate.   But   during  the several years  necessary  to  prove  this, there  seems  to have been but one idea among  those  participating in  these de­ partments of  shooting,  which  was  accuracy.    To such  an extent has this  been carried  that  several intelligent gentle­ men, desiring to learn  the  extreme  accuracy  of pistols  and revolvers, affixed to these arms  fine  sights,  generally con­ sisting of a rear  peep sight  and  a pin-head  or an  aperture for   the   front   sight.     With    such   sights   I tested,    and saw shot,  pistols, and  revolvers from  ten  yards  up  to 500 yards,   careful    data   of  such   shooting   being   recorded. Within a year I received  from  Mr. W.  E. Carlin  a  hand­ some album containing the results of most elaborate experiments, by that  gentleman  and  others,  with   various revolvers, to which were affixed Mogg telescope sights. The receipt  of the results obtained   by Mr. Carlin,  Mr. Hubert Reynolds,  and others,  together with  my own experiments, has  enabled   me to  form, I believe, approximately correct impressions  of the  capabilities of these arms.

The difference   between   the  pistol  and the   revolver in





point of accuracy  and  reliability is noticeable.    With both there   are  occasional   unaccou ntable shots,  but  this  is  far less  frequent with  the  pistol  than  with  the  revolver.    I have  seen a pistol shoot  n1any shots  into  a group  one inch







Fig.. 114. -l\’Ir. Harry J.l\'[ehard, Philadelphia.  Amateur Pistol and  ReYolver Shot.




in diameter at  twenty yards ; · into  a 2t-inch circle  at fifty yards ; into  a  six-inch   circle  at  100  yards ; into  a  ten­ inch  circle  at  200 yards; into  a thirty-inch  circle  at 300 yards,   beyond   which   distances  there   is   no   reliability. A revel ver will often  shoot on and  in an  inch circle at a distance  of twenty yards.    I have  scores  of  such  groups,





shot  with a .32-44 Smith  & Wesson revolver  with U. 1\L C. gallery a1n1nunition.    Among  my  collection   are  several groups   which  a  circle   one-half  iuch   in   diameter   would touch  and  enclose  them  all  at   thirty yards.   A  model’n American revolver  of .44 caliber  with  perfect factory ammunition  is  capable  of  placing   ten  shots   on   and   in







Fig. 115.-Ten shots at fifty ‘ ards. by  H. J. 1\Iellar<l, at Philadelphia, Penn.

Shot with a \Yurftlein Pistol, April25, 1893.   Reduced one quarter.





the    ten    circle  on  the    Standard    American   target, 3-(00inches  in  cliatneter,  at  a  distance   of fifty yards.    I have

1na.ny gtoup\vhich are  inclosed  in  even smaller  spaces, shot  at a distance  of fifty yards.   At 100  yards a .44 caliber revolver  is  capable  of                                       shooting into  an  eight-inch  circle, but   these  would  be  selected   groups           and    unaccountable shots  more frequent.                      I have  groups  of shots  fired at  150 yards  with  the .44 caliber  revolver   and  factory  ammun1.,





tion, which could  be placed on and in a circle twelve inches     •

in diameter ; and groups of shots made at  200 yards  on and in a circle sixteen inches  in diameter.   Beyond   200 ·yards a general  idea of the accuracy  of revolvers can  be procured from  the  chapter devoted  to pistol  and  revolver   shooting at  long  range.     At  every  yard   the range  of a pistol  or a revolver   is extended, the  liability  of  unaccountable shots is   increased,  this   unreliability  being   greater  with   the revolver.

All  the  information relating  to  the  accuracy   of  these arms is interesting and  of  some practical value.     It shows such  arms  to  be  capable  of  accuracy  when  charged  with correct   ammunition, and   therefore  gives   confidence   to those  using the  weapons.

Now  that   it  has  been  demonstrated that   the  revolver

is an accurate arm, it is proper  that  it should  be separated from the  pistol  and  assigned   to its correct  place.    I con­ sider  the single-shot pistol  the legitimate arm of target shooters.     It is  proper  to make rules  governing competi­ tions   where   pistols  are  shot,   so  they   will  develop    the highest   skill  of  the  marksman   and  the arm.     The  single­ shot   pistol  should   be used  as  are match rifles in off-band competitions; but  to allow  the  revolver to be shot  under the same rules,  and  the  results  held  up  for the  inspection of  the  world  as examples  of  revolver  shooting, I consider as wrong and deceptive. I have previously referred to the absurdity of  using  a revolver  with lightly loaded  charges, and  allowing   the  marksman unlimited  time  to aim, often permitting the revolver to be sighted  several  times  before it is discharged.   In  my opinion,  that  is one of  the illegi­ timate  and  absurd  uses of the  revolver.

There is another improper use  to  which  the  revolver  is

put.     It is the  careless  manipulation of  the arm  by twirl­

ing it on  the  fingers ; it is  sa,id the  manipulation o£ the




arm in such  a manner  is  sometimes  followed   by cowboys. I have   seen   a  great    many   cowboys   shoot   revolvers, and  I have  seen   some  splendid shots  among  them,  but they  never  did any  good shooting by t’virling the  revolver around,  snapping it in a careless manner, shooting it upside down, or any other of the  absurd ways which stage shots sometimes  attempt. I have  seen  several   narrow  escapes from  death   by  attempts to  handle   a  revolver   in  such  a ridiculous manner,  and have  known of several  deaths  from such  cause.

I do not  think   shooting a  revolver with  a  steady  aim

and  unlimited time is proper  practice  for soldiers or  those desiring to  acquire a practical proficiency  with  the arm; neither  do I believe  the handling the  revolver  in the care­ less and   absurd  manner  described  a legitimate use of  the arm.   I favor  shortening the  distance  in revolver  shooting, and  reducing the time allowed for shooting.    I also believe that  a moving  target and  a disappearing target  should  be employed,  the former  arranged so it will  move across the line  of fire at a certain  speed,  the  other  so that  the  target shall  appear  at stated intervals, remaining in sight  a speci­ fied time,  during which one or more shots should  be fired. Learn  to shoot  a revolver  quickly, but  not carelessly.

Outdoor    pistol  practice   in  America   is  in  advance   of

Europe, but with  revolver  practice  in many sections  of this country, ‘ve are behind  England, solely because we are not practical, this  being especially  so among the volunteers.

Colonel    William    L.  Chase,  inspector general      of  rifle

practice of Massachusetts at  the time of writing, has given intelligent study to the matter of revolver  shooting in the National  Guard,   and  his  example   in   prescribing  rules which oblige  the  volunteer to  fire  hi.s six  shots  within  a space  of one minute  is a step  in the right  direction, and an example worthy   of  imitation  wherever   revolver   practice





is  participated in  by  the  citizen  soldiers.     But   revolver practice  should  call for more than  shooting at a stationary target.   A man who can  place  his  five or six shots  in an eight-inch bullseye  at twenty yards in half or three  quarters






































Fig. 116.-Target shot by Mr. HenryS. Harris, in Pistol Match for1890,  at Walnut

Hill, with a  Diamond Model Stevens Pistol; distance fifty y .rds; target

one fourth original size.





of  a minute,  is  far  more  proficient  in  my op1n1on, in  the legitimate use of  the revolver  than   be who  scores ninety on the  Standard American t rget at  fifty  yards,  with a deliberate  aim   and   unlimited  time,  fine  sights,   lightly loaded  ammunition, and light  trigger pull.

The  army  officers of the   United   States, especially  the

cavalry   officers,  are   responsible, it     is    thought, for     the reduction  in                the  caliber  of  revolvers for  military  use  in this country; many  of them  have  made public their  ideas





in papers and in military   journals,  and  express  an opinion that  the old .45 caliber  army revolver  was unnecessarily powerful, claiming that  a revolver which would  shoot accurately and  powerfully at a distance   of  ten or  twenty yards  was the  proper   arm.    I do  not  hesitate to  record here my opinion,  which will  be left  for years  to come, that a great  mistake  bas been made  in the reduction of caliber in revolvers for  military use by the  United States govern­ ment.     I am of  the   opinion   that   the  old  army  revolver was perhaps  unnecessarily powerful,  hut  by no means too large  in bore.    The principles applied  to a rifle, it does not seem to me, can be embraced  in a revolver.   Undoubtedly the   reduction in  the  caliber   of  military rifles  is  a  wise change.      Rifles  are  to  be  shot  at   long   range,   while  a revolver  is  an arm of  close quarters ; and  when the latter is  employed,  it is  desirable  to  have  an  arm  which  will disable  the enemy  at once.    I would  emphasize  my belief that rifles should  be smaller  in  bore, and  revolvers as large as .45, if not larger.

Viewing implements of  war or defense  from  a  humane standpoint, the claim  that small   bore rifles wound  rather than kill, may be right.   These sentiments, however, cannot with safety  be applied  to the revolver: with  that  weapon it is often  to kill  or be killed.   The  officers who chose a new revolver  for  the  United States Army   reported  that  the board   had  no  means  of  knowing ” whether   these  arms (those   tested) have  the  necessary stopping  power.”   In my opinion  the most potent  point  was neglected.

A revolver   is  utterly useless  without stopping power. Verification  of this  is  accessible  to any  one  interested in the  subject.   Some  army   officers  recognize   this,   but   it would  seem they  are in the   inority.   Lieutenant  Eben Swift,  of the  Fifth  United  States Cavalry, presented some




data  on this subject  in a paper  printed  in ·the  Journal of the United  States  Cavalry  Association.                          He says :-

“Ma jor H. E. C. Kitchener, now a major-general, I believe, in the English army, in the year  1886 wrote a valuable article on the use of  revolvers.    He  appears to have  consulted a  great number of  officers who had experience in  that   savage  warfare in  which they   had  to   deal  with  a  fanatical enemy, whose  only  hope   of heaven   was  in  killing  and  being   killed.    There are   no  fiercer fighters on  earth   than   these  Afghans, Zulus,  and  Arabs, who, armed  with  hand   weapons  entirely, were  able  to  run  over  well­ disciplined troops  armed  with  breech-loadi ng rifles.    The  officers were  earnest in declaring that  toy pistols  would  not  do for  such service; that  there  must  be no doubt  of the ability  of the weapon to drop  an  adversary in  his  tracks.   Many  would  not  trust the caliber   .45,  and  favored the  double-barreled  pistol  caliber   .577 and  the four-barreled pistol caliber  .476, on account  of their  stop­ ping  power.     In the Afghan and  Egyptian  campaigns nearly   all the  officers of  the  Tenth Hussars armed   themselves with  these pistols  instead of  revolvers.    Much was said  in favor  of  smooth­ bore  barrels for  weapons  whose use is essentially at close quarters, and from  which  it is  desired that  a  heavy  shock   to  the  object aimed  at should   be  given.     Others spoke   in  favor  of  buckshot cartridges, which  give  a terrible shock.   Express bullets, such as are  used  in   hunting large  game,   were  suggested  for  revolvers which   were  called   on   to  stop   equally   wild   men.      Increased stopping power was also given  by cutting off  the   pointed   end  of the oullet.”


In 1879  Major Edin  Baker  reported:-


“I saw,Captain H., of the Bengal Cavalry, empty five shots from his  revolver  into  the back of a  Ghazi,  who  was  running  amuck through camp, at less than  five yards’ range, without stopping him. I examined the  man  myself  afterwards, and  found   the  marks  of

all six  bullets  in  his body.   I consider the service revolver should

throw  a heavy  ball of .5 ineh to .55 inch  diameter, and   I am half inclined  to believe a flat head  to the bullet would be an advantage.” The  English army revolvr at that time was .455 caliber,

shooting  a cartridge containing eighteen  grains of    powder

and a 250 grain  bullet.




In contradistinction to the above, I would  refer   to  the work of Captain George D. Wallace,  of the Seventh United States Cavalry, during the  Ind1an  ou tbreak  at Pine  Ridge Agency   in  1891.    After   the  Wounded  l{nee  fight, the body of  Captain  ‘Vallace was found  at the entrance of an Indian lodge, and  there  was every  evidence  that the officer had sold  his life very  dearly.    Five   Indian  warriors lay dead around  him, each of them with a single  bullet wound. The  captain   had   a  six-chambered revolver  in   his  hand empty, and  it is therefore  presumed   that,   before  he  was overpowered   by  the  savages, he  had  a  desperate  fight, and  emptied  the revolver upon  his adversaries,  each  shot having fatal  effect.     The  revolver used  by  Captain   Wal­ lace was  a  Colt  .45 caliber  army  pattern, shooting  a  car­ tridge  containing forty  grains  of powder  and  a 250  grain bullet.     Only  five  chambers  of  the  six  in  the  revolver were loaded, as it was the  custom  of army officers to carry one chamber empty,  resting th e hammer against the  empty chamber  for  safety.

From   correspondence  and  conversation with  army offi­

cers, I have fonned  the impression that   the  terrific  recoil of  the  old  army   .45   caliber  Colt  revolver   made  it  an object  of  dread  to most officers and  men .   It would  have been  a  wise  move, in  my  opinion,   to   have  reduced   the charge   slightly and   retained  the   caliber, flattening the point  of the bullet.   Such  is the opinion  formed  by several years’ study of the revolver, carefully  recording the effect of  shooting people and  animals  with  revelvers of  various calibers  and  diff erent  charges.

A perfect   revolver   should possess  all  the  power  that

is  possible without  making   the  recoil  unbearable  to  the shooter.

















Massachusetts   Rifle    Association Rules   for    Pistol     and


Revolver  Shooting.


Revised January, 1894.


In all  matches,   when   not   otherwise menti.oned,  either  single·shot pistols  or  revolvers  will  be  permitted  upon  equal   conditions;  but   if matches call for  the revolver, the single-shot  pistol will not be admitted, unless specially mentioned.





Pistols and  revolvers allowed  in competitions must conform  to the following conditions: –

A.-Army or navy revolver.

B. -Any revolver.

C. – Any pistol.


.A. -.Army or Navy  Revolvers  must  be such  as  have  been  adopted by  any  government for  the  armament of its  army  or  navy,  and  must conform,   in  all  respects  of  model,  sights,  and   ammunition used,  to the service revolver of such nation.


B..Any  Revolver.-Revolvers  of  any  caliber,   maximum weight, three  pounds;  maximum length  of  bore, including cylinder,  ten inches.


C. -Single-Shot  Pistols. -Any breech   or  muzzle  loading   pistol, maximum weight,  three  pounds; maximum length of  bore, ten inches.


Trigger Pull. -In all matches,  or in practice shooting,  the minimum trigger   pull  shall  be  three  pounds  for  revolvers,  and  two  pounds  for the single-shot  pistols.

Sights for any Pistols  or Revolvers.-The front  and  rear sights  must be  open,  and   not  more  than   ten   inches apart;  the  notch  of  a  rear sight, to  be considered  open, must  be· as wide  at  the  top of  the  notch as at any part; no aperture or  peep  sights,  nor  any manner  of covered sights,  shall  be permitted.   Lateral sliding  bars  or wind gauge  may be used  on  rear  open  sight,  also  any  elevating  front   or  rear  open  sight. The  use of a notch for a front sight  will  not  be permitted.  Sights  may be smoked  or blackened  in any desired manner.

Ammunition.- If factory  ammunition  is called  for,  it  shall   be of any  make,   of  any  established  manufacturer,  generally  procurable   in stores,  and brought to  the shooting-point in  unbroken boxes, with  the label of the manufacturer intact.





Cleaning.-In  any   match  where    both   pistols    and   revolvers are allowed, competitors may clean  their  arms  at will,  provided  such  clean­ ing  does  not  delay  the  firing,  which  shall be at  the  rate of  one  shot per minute, when  t.ime limit  is required, or oftener during the  firing  of each  score,  except  in  case  of  accident.  In such  case the  time  may be extended, in the discretion of the executive officer.

In matches confined  to  revolvers the  cylinder  must  be fully  charged, or  a  sufficient  number  of  chambers  charged   to   complete  the   score. Blowing into  or  cleaning the  barrel in any  way will  not  be  permitted, except  when  the cylinder is completely discharged.

Loading  and  Firing.-No arms  shall   be loaded  except  at  the  firing­ point, the  muzzle  of  piece being  kept   in  the  direction of  the  target till the arm  is either  discharged or unloaded.

Misfires  shall  not  count; but  an  accidental discharge shall, in every instance, be scored  a shot.

Position.-The position shall be as follows: Standing free from  any other artificial   support, the  pistol  or  revolver held  in  one  hand   only, with   the  arm  extended free from  the  body,  and  unsupported in  any way.

Ta1·gets. -The Standard  American target, full size,  having an  eight­ inch   bull,  shall   be used  in matches at  fifty  yards’ distance.   The  same target  reduced to  one-half   size,  having a  four-inch bull,  in matches at thirty yards’   distance.  The  same  target reduced   to  one-quarter size, having  a   two-inch  bull,  In  matchs at  twenty yards’     distance.  The target reduced,  in  the same  proportion to distance, in matches of a lesser range.

Matking and  Sco1·ing. -Unless otherwise specified,  each  competitor will have a separate target  provided,  and  will  fire  his score throughout, when  the  target will be examined by the scorer  and  the score recorded.

Value  of  Shots.-If  a  bullet  touches a  line  the  count   of  that   line is given; shots  on or within that line  count   the same.   The  eye alone shall determine the count.   Placing a bullet  or other  articles in the  shot hole is not  permitted.

Appeals. -In  case  of  a  challenge or  of  dissatisfaction in  any  way connected with   the  shooting, in matches or  practice, being  referred to the  executive officer, he  or  his  representative shall   render a  decision. Should his decision  be unsat.isfactory, an appeal  may be made in writing to  the executive committee;  the  decision  of  the  majority of  this  com­ mittee shall  be final.

To  Avoid   Da’ngej·. No  unnecessary talking will  be  allowed   to  or by shooters while  on the  firing-point with loaded  pistol.







Rules   Governing   Revolver  Firing in U. S. Army.



The  following  rules  are prescribed  for revolver firing in the  United   States   Army, and  are  reprinted from  ‘Firing Regulations for Small Atms  for  the  United States Army,” by Captain Stanhope E.  Blunt, published by Charles Scribner’s Sons,  New  York,  by  permission   of  the  author and  the  publishers.










831.    All cavalry troops  and  all  other soldiers armed  with   the  revol­ ver should  be instructed in its  use;   the  practice for  the  cavalry  should also  be conducted mounted.

832.    Owing  to  the   unsteady support  that  the   hand   gives   to   the weapon,  the  methods of  aiming previously prescribed for  the  rifle  and carbine cannot be  advantageously followed.  This  is  especially   true  of

the  practice mounted, where  the  motion  of   the   horse   and   the   very

limited time  available for  the  delivery   of   the  fire  permit neither  the

steadiness nor deliberation so requisite for success  with  the  other a.rms.

833.    The  best  result.s will then  be obtained by following the  method

of  snap shooting; for  which  the  pistol  should   be held  raised  and  then

quickly projected at  the  mark and  fired  without pause  or  any  effort   to

align   it  upon  the  object, the  action   being  somewhat  similar  to  that

employed  in throwing a missile from  the  hand  and from  the  same  raised

position of the  arm.

834.    The instruction will be commenced with  the  revolver  not loaded,

the  men  being  taught the  motions and  the  methods of  delivering the

blow in different directions.

835.    For  this  purpose, the men  being  formed  in single  rank with  an

interval of one pace between  files, the instructor commands,



1.    Raise,   2.      PISTOL,

when  the  pistol  will be drawn from  the  holster and  brought to  the  posi­

tion  prescribed in the  Cavalry  Drill  Regulations.

836.   The pistols being in the  position  of raise pistol, the instructor commands,                                          ·


1.    Squad,     2.      READY,


at  which  the  pistol  will  be  cocked  with   the  thumb of  the  right hand;

this  motion is greatly facilitated by giving  the  pistol  a  short   quick   jerk

.forward and  downward, the  weight  of the  barrel  seconding the  action  of the  thumb.                      The  position  of 1·aise pistol is then resumed.

837.    e parate  commands for aiming and  firing  will not  be given,  but the fire delivered to the front at  the single command,








when  the soldier,  looking with  both  eyes  intently at  the  mark and  not even glancing at  the sights or the pistol,  will lower  the  pi tol  smartly to the front, in the  direction of  the  object,  and  fire  without pause  or  any effort  to align  the sight  upon   the  mark.   The  mark  should   be a  black disk about  the size of  a  target paster  on the  barrack wall,  at the  height of the  soldier’s head  and  bout ten feet  distant.

838.    The   instructor will  pay particular attention to  the  m”‘nner  in which  the soldier  holds the  pistol; the  clasp  of  the  thumb and  second






Fig.l17.-Ten  shot  at fiftv yards, by  i\Ir. R. J. :\lehard, of  Philadelphia, Penn.

Shot with a ‘Vurfllein·pistol, Dec. 2, 1893.       Score ninety-six.  Reduced one  quarter.




and third fingers should  be firm,  the first finger  being  on the trigger   and the little finger  underneath the end  of  the  handle.   If the  clasp  is  too high  up  on  the  handlt:>, the  muzzle  will  be  elevated;  if  too  low,  the muzzle  will be depressed.   ‘l’he  clasp should not  be so  tight   as  to  com­ manicate tremor to  the  pistol,  yet   sufficiently firm   to  sustain,  when firing  with  ball cartridges, the force  of  the  recoil.     After the  discharge the  position  of raise pistol  will be resumed.

839.   These  motions  will  at   first   be  executed  rather   slowly,   the instructor correcting the  positions  if  necessary, and  the  motions quick­ ened  as the soldier  acquires the  habit  of  leveling or  projecting instinct­ ively the  pistol in the same  manner that the forefinger would  be pointed at an object.





840.    Fire  will be delivered to the  right and  front by the  commands,


1.  Beady,  2. RIGHT OBLIQUE,   3. FIRE.


At the first command the  pistol is  cocked  as  before, at  the  second the bead and  eyes are  turned toward the right forty-five  degrees,  and  at  the last  command the  pistol  is  leveled  and  fired  in  the  direction in  which the eyes are looking.   The  position of raise  pistol is then  resumed.

841.    In  a similar manner tlle men  will be instructed in  firing  to  the left  and  front, to the  right, to the  left,  and  to the  rear, substituting the commands LEFT  OBLIQUE, To  THE RIGHT, To  THE LEFT,  To   THE RIGHT AND REAR, To THE LEFT  AND REAR, and  To  THE REAR for

the  second  command  above.    When  firing  to tbP. l eft  the  pistol band  will

be about opposite the left shoulder ; when  firing  to the right and  rear  or

left  and  rear  the  shoulders will be turned forty-five  degrees  to  the  right

or left  respectively; in firing  to the  rear  they  wi ll  also  be  turned forty­

five degrees  to the right; for the  other firings  they  will  be  kept   nearly

square t.o the front, such  slight variations being  made,  however,  as  may

be necessary  to obtain  an  easy and  natural position.

842.    As soon  as the soldier  is familiar with  the  methods of  deliver­

ing  a single  shot  be  will  be  practiced in  the  methods of  firing  several shots;  generally the   number  corresponding to   the   contents  of   the chamber.   For  this  praetice the  command  Commence FIRING  will  be substituted for that of  FIRE as given  in  the  preceding paragraphs.   In

executing these  commands the  pistol  will  be  brought  back  after   each shot  to the  position  of  raise pistol,  when  it will be  cocked  and  the  fol­ lowin g shot  delivered.

843.    Instruction will then  be given  with  blank   cartridges, the  troop being formed  in echelon to the front at distances and  intervals of  five or ten yards,  so that each  man  can fire  in  all  directions without inJury  to the  other  men.

844.    For  instruction in firing  ball  cartridges ranks will  be  broken, anu  the  practice conducted with  but  on e  man  at  a  time.    The  target will be that used  f or  gallery  practice at  fifty feet  (paragraph 148), and

will f or  the  first  firing  be  five  yards,  to  be  afterward increased to  ten yards  f rom  the  soldier.   The  cartridge employed   will  contain  ten   or twelve  grains of  powder  and  a  round   ball.    Practice will  be  held   in firing  in the diff erent  directions previously prescribed.

845.    When  the  soldier  exhibits proficiency  in the  preceding practice, he will be advanced to firing  with  the  regular service cartridge at  the  A target used for  rifle and  carbine firing on the  range.     For  cavalry troops

the  course  of  instruction,  which  for  all,  both  officers  and  enlisted men, will be conducted each  year,  will consist of  the  preliminary and  regular or record  practice; the  former   comprising not  less  than five  nor  more than twenty shots  at  the  distances ten,  twenty-five, fifty, and  seventy­ five  yards,  firing  to  the  front, the  position  being   standing,  off-hand, without rest  or support of  any  nature ·for  the  pistol  or  pistol  arm,  and the  latter two scores,  of five shots  each,  at each  of the distances twenty­ five, fifty, and seventy-five yards.   These firings may be preceded  or supplemented by additional practice at  the  same  or  different distances in the  discretion of  the  troop  commander, but  the  distinctions and  rules governing these  classes  of  practice as  prescribed in  paragraphs 204 to

208, and  paragraph 216 will always  be observed.








846.    The  different steps  of  the  instruction, when  mounted, will  be conducted according to  the  general plan   outlined for  the   dismounted practice, the  exercises  for  the  recruit  commencing as  soon  as  lle   ha-s become fairly  proficient in the school of the  trooper  m ount d.

847.    At a convenient part  of  the  drill  ground   seYeral  A  targets on temporary frames, or  the  silhouette target D,  should be  placed; they should  be  thirty or  forty  yards  apart and  faced  in  the  same  direction. The  troop  should  be divided  into  as  many  squads as  there are  targets, and each squad  formed  opposite its target and  about   twenty yards  from it.    lly  the  commands and  means  prescribed in  the  SCHOOL OF  THE TROOPEH. :MouNTED, the  squads will  be  manreuvred  in  front of  their respective targets, circling  to the  right and  left  by squad  and  by trooper, the soldi er (chambers being empty) practicing at first  by command and then   at  wilI the  motions   of  firing  in  different  directions.   The   gaits employed  will  be first the  walk  and  then  the gallop.     This  practice will be continued, with  the  trooper using  blank cartridgs.

48.    When  the  soldier   becomes  accustomed to  handling the   pistol mounted and  the horses  used to the  firing, the  practice will be continued upon  the target range  where the  track, and  targets five yards distant (the silhouette target lC D” only  being  used),  will  be arranged, as  nearly as the ground permit   , as illustrated by the  accompanying diagram: –






r< —- ———–200-Y:u-ds———–                _ -r, II           ,,——– ————· ——-1–…. ,



I       /                                                                                                                 oo              ‘, I

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II                                                                                                                       g                \1

I                                                                                        t

I                                                                      o                                                        I

‘,                                                                   SCORER                                                                     I


\                                            0                                               0                                             /

\                                   MARKER                                     MARKER                                      /


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..    –

r . —-:;,—–TA RGETS


,/ /







849.    Before  firing  ball  cartridges the  sqnad   will  be  manreuvred in column of  troopers  on the  track  in front of  the  targets)  each  trooper   as he passes each target  going through the motions of firing, with  empty chambers.  A canter and  afterward a full  gallop  will  be  taken in  this exercise.

850.   In  subsequent exercises when  passing the  targets the  distance will be increased to  t\venty  yards  between  troopers, provided   the  horses can be  properly  controlled and  the gait  increased to  a  gallop;  the  trot bei ng taken upon  entering the opposite long  side  until closed,  the  head of  the  closed column  halting so as to  allow  the  troopers to  resume the increased gait  at  the  proper   moment.   Blank cartridges will  then   be fired and this exercise continued until each  trooper can  fire five cartridges with  deliberation and  coolness  in the  time  occupied  in  passing  by the targets.








851.    For  firing with  ball cartridges the  troop  will be formed   as  illus­ trated in the  diagram.            At the  proper  command each trooper will  move out from  the  right at  a  walk,  take  up  the  trot  and   !;allop, and  at  the latter gait  move along  the  line  of  targets, delivering onshot  at  each. He  will then resume  the trot  and  take  his place on the left of  the  troop. The  succeeding trooper will follow  at such  an  interval, depending upon the   tractability of the  horses,   as   the   troop   commander  deems   most advisable,  but  preferably not  moving  out  until   tlie  bits   made   by  the preceding trooper  have  been d etermined and  the shot  holes  pasted.852.    After   the  troopers become  skilled   in  the  use  of  the  revolver, firing  to the  right, the  practice will be conducted firing  to the left; then placing  the  targets obliquely to the track, the  firing will be  to  the  right front, to the  left  front, and  to  the  right rear   in  the  order  stated. In firing  to the  left  the  men  move out  by trooper from  the  left,  and  move around the  track with  the  targets on   the   left   hand.   Each   of  these varieties of  the  practice will be preceded  by the  preliminary instruction specified  in  paragraph 849.

853.   For  practicing firing  directly to the  front, four  D targets will be arranged in  line  with  intervals of  five yards  and  the  troop  formed   in front of the  targets at a distance of  100 yards.    At the  proper  command each  trooper  from  the  right   in  succession will  advance on  the  targets, open fire  when  eighty  yards  from them, and,  firing  five shots  between that point  and  the  targets, pass between  them  and  return to the  troop.

Before  firing  ball cartridges, this  practice will be  held  with  chambers empty, the  trooper going  through the  motions of  firing; a  canter, and for  the final practices a full gallop  being maintained during the firing.

854.    For  further  practice in  firing  to  the  front the   targets will  be arranged with intervals of between  five and ten  yards,  in the  discretion of the   troop  coJDmander, and  the  troopers, with  corresponding intervals,

advanced  by fours upon   them, firing  as  for  the  charge of   the   single

trooper,  passing between   the  targets and  returning to  the  left  of  the


The  number of  targets will  then   be  increased to  correspond to  the

number of  troopers in a platoon and  the  entire  platoon advanced in  a

manner similar to that for  the  fours, firing  and  returning to  the  troop

as above directed.

The  preliminary and  later instruction in  these  two  practices will  be conducted as prescribed in the  preceding paragraph.

855.    When  the   troopers, individually and   collectively, have   been carefully instructed  in  all  the  preceding  practices,  they  will   each   be repeated with  ball cartridges, and a careful  record  for  final  report   made of the result, each bit being  scored  one.    This  record  or regular mounted pistol  practice then   consists of  the  following course: with  the  targets arranged as in paragraph 848, on e run  (five shots)  for each trooper firing in each  of  the  prescribed directions;  viz., to the  right, left,  right front,

left  front, and  right  rear,  or twenty-five  shots  in all.

With  the  targets arranged as  in  paragraph 853, one  run   (five shots)

for each  trooper firing as there  prescribed.

The  course  of  individual mounted firing  thus comprises t,hirty shots;

it will be followed  by each  officer and  enlisted man.

With  the  targets arranged as  in  paragraph 854, two  runs   (ten shots

per man)  for  each  set  of  fours, and  two  runs   (ten shots  per  man)   by


The  course  of  collective firing  thus  comprises twenty shots, and  the

entire regular mounted  course   is  therefore  completed  in  fifty  shots,





which,  with  the  t hirLy shots for the regular dismounted course,  makes  a grand total  of eighty shots for  the entire cow·se.

856.    Instruction in  revolver  firing  will   be  carried  on   during the regular practice season,  care  being exercised that during the first  month it is  held   on  those  days  not favorable for  carbine firin .    During the second  mon th,  when  the  carbine  practice  wi ll  generally be  only  the collective firing  of  the troop,  the revolver practice   w ill  be more  ener­ getical1y pushed  anrl th e course completed   by the  close of the season.

At  the  close  of  the first  month and  of  tile first  and  second  weeks  of

the  second  month , t roop commanders will  report  by letter  to the  inspec­

tor  of  small arms  practice  of  the   d epartm ent   the   number  of   times

practice has been  h eld and the  progress   made  in  the  prescribed course, and at the close of tbe season  will report  on the  proper form  (Form 30-f)

the  score of each officer and  man  in the  dismounted practice, the  number of hits made by him in each of the required indivi dual moWlted  practices, and  the  number of  hits  in  the  collective practice, when  firing  by fours and by platoons.   The per cent  of possible score for  the  troop  for  all this firing  will  also  be  given.   A  summary of  th is  final  report, giving  the per  cent  of  each  troop  in  revolver  firing,   will  accompany the   annual report (Form  30) of the department.











The   following   General  Orders   No.  143   from   head­ quarters  of  the   army,   adjutant-general’s  office,   Wash­ ington, Dacember   17,  1890, is supplementary to  the preceding remarks:-


The  following modifications, prepared by Captain Stanhope E. Blunt, Ordnance  Department,  of   the  Firing  Regulations for   Small   Arms, having received  the  approval of  the  secretary of  war,   will  govern   in the future practice of  the army: –

1.  Commissioned  officers  after   completing  the   firing   with   rifle  or earbine  prescribed for  the  second  and  subsequent  seasons, while  per­ mitted,  will   not   be  required  to  participate in   the  annual  course  of practice ;  if,  however, they  do  practice and  make  scores sufficient for qualification as marksmen, they  will  be included in the  figure of  merit; but  if they  do  uot  practice, or  if  their scores  are  below  the  required total,  they  will not  be classified.

2.  The  monthly company   report of   progress  in  target firing  (Form

30-c) and  the  orders  requil·ed  by paragraph 560 to  be compiled  monthly

from  it will hereafter be omitted.

3. The   division competitions provided   for   by  paragraphs 591,  598,

and  599 will be omitted.

4. The altern ates  mentioned in paragraph 596 will  not  hereafter  be

added  to department teams.

5.  The  cavalry competitions provided  for  by  paragraph 600  will  be

four  in number; they  will be conducted in the  mauner there prescribed,

but for  prizes similar to those  awarded at department competitions.





6.  In  the revolver   match   provjded  for   by  paragraph  601,  the   dis­ mounted  portion will   be  as  there   p rescribed;  the   mounted  portion as there prescribed, with  the following modific::ttions: –

a. Under 1st.,  page  231,  the  targets ( target   D)  will  be  at ten  yards

instead of  five yards  from  the  track.

b. Instead  of   the  firing  to  the  front (2d,  page  231), the  firing  will

be  conducted as  in  1st,  page  2!31,  but  with  the  target (target   D)  first

fired   at   twenty-five yards  from   the   track, the   second   target  twenty

yards,  the  third   target fifteen  yards,   the  fourth target ten  yards,   and

the   last   target  five  yards   from   the   track, as  illustrated in  the   ac­

companying diagram.



•…………………………………………..•200  yard s ..……...…..………….....….…..………..


i     ——————- —-           I

:     ,.., _,…–                                                          -………………                   :

l //         -lliiiiiiiiiii:IIIIIUIIII:IIIlll!llnll                                                      ‘””-.

u;, I /,_.——_ I                                                                                          “\\:…’


:,                                                                                                                         ji

\                                                                                                                         I

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\                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             I

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Cl’‘        0                                   /./




When  repeating the  firing  to  the  left,   the  positions of  the targets will be  changed so  that again  the  first   fired  at  shall   be  twenty-five yards from   the  track, the  second  twenty yards,  and  so on.     The  targets will be  plaeed   at   an  angle  of  forty-five degrees  with   the   track, in  order that  the   firing  may  be  to   the  right front and   lef t  front, instead of directly to the  right  and  left.

c. Same  as  ” a,” except   that   the  targets ( target   K)  will  be  the  sil­

houette of  a   mounted soldier.   In all  cases,  both  in  regular practice and  in  matches, where  this   target is  used,   hits,  direct   or  ricochet, in

that portion of  the silhouette above  a  li ne  drawn from  the  back of  the horse  to  the  point  of  junction of  the  trooper’s arm  and  horse’s neck, wil l  be scored  two;   all other  hits  will be scored  one.

d . Same  as “b,” except  that   target K will  be  used  instead of  target


In   determining the  ord er  of   merit   in   the   revolver match, the  dis­

mounted firing,  the  mounted firing  at  the  D  targets, and  the mounted

firing  at  the K  targets will  be considered separately, and  the final order

decided   by  th e  ruean  of  the   percenta es   for  t hese  three   classes.    In

case  of  ties  the  provisions of  paragraph 651 will  be applied, the  firing at  the  K  targets  being  for   this   pu r pose considered as  at  the   longest

distance and   the   dismounted  firing  at   the   shortest.   The  prizes  will be as now provid ed by paragraph 602.

If deemed   expedient  by  the   officer  in  charge   of   the   competition,






paragraph 601 may  he  further modifieu   by including in  the   first  day of  the  match   a  portion of  the  mounted firing,  provided   that similar portions for  each competitor are so included.

7.  Distinguished marksmen eligible  under  the provisions of paragraph

605 for  membership on  the  army  teams  will  participate in  the  appro­

priate department or  cavah·y competition in  a  manner similar to  that

now  provided   in   paragraphs 603 and   604.    Tbe  officers  and   enlisted

men,  five in  number, highest   on  the  resulting list  at  each  department

or  cavalry   competition  will  be  assembled annually  at   some   central point to  compete  for  places  respectively on   the  army  rifle  and   army

carbine tearus  of  ten,  in  the  manner and  for  the  prizfls  now  provided for army  competitions.   Alternates will  not  be selected   for  these  army


8.  Distinguished marksmen  who  have  not  gained   places  among   the

selected   competitors  fur   the   army  teams   or  who   may  no   longer   be

eligible  for  those  teams,  will  be  assembled   annualJy  to  the  number of

ten,  firing  with   the  rifle, and  the  sarue number with  the carbine  to com­

pete  for   the  prizes  now  provided  in  paragraph 605.    The   number of

these  marksmen to be thus  selected   at each  d partment or cavalry  com­

petition, will   be  determined  annually by  the  commanding general of

the  army.   The  competitions of  these  teams  will  be  held  at  the  same time and  place as tile army  competitiovs.

9. The   “short  quick    jerk   forward  and   downward” prEscribed   in paragraph  836  as  an  aid  in  cocking the  revolver  wi11 be  omitted and the  pistol   cockeu   by  the  thumb alone   while  at   the  position of  raise pistol.

10.  In  dismounted  firing  with   the   revolver,   deliberate aim  wi11 be

taken,  or  else  the  method of  quick-aimed  fire  hereafter prescribed   for

mounted  practice  will   be  follo,ved,   in   the   discretion  of   the   troop


11.  The  dismounted practice at  seventy-five   yards,  required by para­

graph  845,  will   be  omitted,  and   the   record   practice  at   twenty-five

yards  and fifty yards  limited to five shots  at each  range.

12.  In  mounted practice the   method  of    quick-aimed  fire   will   be

substituted  for  tbe  rmap shooting  pre cribed  in  paragraphs 833,  837,

and   839.    In this  method  of  firing,  the  soldier  wtll   lower  the   pistol from  the  position of  ·raise  pistol,  point   or  thrust it  towards  the  ob­

jective,  and,  looking along  the  barrel at  the  object, fire without  delay as  the  alignment is  caught, and  without effort   to   prolong  or  correct the  aim.

13.  In  the   preliminary instruction  in   mounted  firing,  the   targE-ts (refer to  diagram, paragraph 848)  will  be  placed  at ten  yards  as  well as at  five  yards  from  the   track,  anu  also as  prescribed   in  paragraph 6,

b,”  of   this  order, and  the  gaits  of  walk  and  trot  as  well  as  gallop observed  when  circling around the  track.   To this  will  be added  similar instruction, using   for  targets the  silhouette (target K)   of  a  mounted soldier.

14.  Mounted  firing  to  the  front, both  individual and   collective, as

prescribed by paragraphs 853 and  854, will be omitted.

15.  The following record  or  regular mounted pistol  practice will  be

substituted for  that  prescribed by  paragrapll 855, each  trooper   during its  prosecution riding  his own horse: –


a. With  the   targets (target D) arranged as  in  paragraph 848,  one circling of  the  track at a walk for  each  trooper, firing  five shots in each





of  the  prescribed  directions;  viz.,  to   the   right, left,   right  front, left front, and  right  rear,  or twenty-five shots  in all.

b. Similar to  a,” except  that the  track will  be traversed  at a gallop;

twenty-five shots.

c. Similar to  “b,” except   that   the  targets will  be  ten  yards  instead

of  five yards from  the  track;  twenty-five shots.

d.  Similar to  “c,” except   that  the  targets  (target  K)  shall   be  sil­

houettes of  a mounted soldier;  twenty-five shots.

e. With the  targets (target D) arranged as  directed   in  paragraph 6,






Fig. 118.-Ten shots at tweuty.five  yards, l>y Sergt. J. J.lVIountjoy, with a Wurftlein Pistol.  Shot at Philadelphia, Penu., May 22, 1892.   Reduced one half.





“b” of  this  order,  one  circling of  the  track, at  a  gallop, to  the right and  one to the left; ten  shots.

f. Similar to ” e ,” except   that   thtarget  K  will  be  used  instead of

target D;  ten shots.

The  entire record  course, which  will  be followed  by each  officer  and

enlisted  man,   thus   comprises  ten   shots   dismounted  and    120   shots


16.  Instructi0n in revolver  firing  will   be  held   separately from  that

with   the  carbine, the   season   for   that  purpose being   one   month in

duration, which  will  either precede  or  follow  the  practice season  with

the  carbine, as the  depar tment commander may direct.

17.  As  accuracy in  revolver  firing  is  greatly influenced by the  tract­

ability of  the   horses,   every  endeavor will  be  made  to  accustom them





to  the   report  of  firearms.   For  this  purpose it  will  be  found   advan­ tageous  to conduct the earlier instruction of  the  trooper, prescribed  by paragraphs 843  and  844, in  the  corral  or  other  convenient place  near the  horses,  which, at  first   left  free  to  move  around, should, as  they become  more  familiar with   the   noise  and   flash,  be  lariated near   the firing  party  and  gradually brought closer  to  the men;   also, during the dismounted practice with  ball  cartridges, the  horses  should   always   be in the near  vicinity of  the firing-point.

If this  training is  carefully conducted, and  if when commencing the mounted  practice with  blank cartridges, prescribed   in  paragraph  847, effort  is  made  to   do  so  without haste or  excitement, the  horses  will be readily  broken  to mounted firing.

18.  No  reports of   revolver  firing  will  hereafter be  rendered except that   (Form 30-f) now  required  by paragraph 856, at  the  close  of  the season.

19.  For   each   cavalryman,  officer  and  enlisted    man,   revolver am­ munition to  the  value  of   $2  will   hereafter  be annually allowed, and in  addition for  each  troop  of  ca\alry, 8,000  rounds of   blank  revolver

ammunition, instead of the  respective amounts now fixed by paragraphs

875 and 881.

20. The  allowance of  revolver  ammunition now  fi4ed  by  paragraph

884 is modified to read sixty  ball and  twenty bl&.nk cartridges.




Adjutant General.



Assistant  Adjutant   General.


















REVOLVER     PRACTICE     IN      THE      U.     S.   NAVY.



The  following   instructions from  Gunnery Drill   Book govern  revolver  practice in the  U. S. Navy.

















1.. . . ……. .



2. *Round ..




*Rou n d . .




3.. . .. . .. … .



4 …. . … . .


.Pistol …………. … . …. Single  alm .. ·1

Single snap ..


0    • •••••

Double atm . . , .. ·


Double snap.)


Cartridges J …. …….. ..

Pack ……


Return… ………… .. ….


Dra w !     1





Flre!          2






Load!         3



Pistol.         4



1.  “Pistol,   draw! ”    (One   time  and   two  motions.) .At  the order, “Pistol.” carry  the right hand   to  the  holster, loosen  the flap  catch  by

an  outward and  upward pull of the flap,  pass the fingers  under the  grip,       •

and  loosen  pistol  in holster.

“Draw!”     Draw  the  pistol  from  the  holster and  carry  it to the  right

shoulder, barrel  vertical, hammer at height of  shoulder, fingers clear  of trigger and  in rear  of  trigger  guat·d. t

. ” Single, aim,  fire! ”  (On e  time  and  three  motions.)   ” Single,” full  cock  and  carry  first  finger   to  trigger.   ‘·.Aim,” extend  the  right arm  straight to the front, elbow  very slightly bent,  and aim  at the object



• NOTE.-Cautionary ortlet·”Round ,” to  be  given only when all  chamllers are to be ero})tied.                                                                           ·

Any  number of  sbots mar be desi gnated a  Three, Two,  etc.

\ ben bu t one  shot is to  be fired , no cautionary order is given.

t .K OTE.-\”fhen  the c utlass is worn with t he reYolver, the holster will  lle on  the right hip; normally jut in  rear of  tbe hip  join t, but it ma y l>e moved in front  uf the hip, at oruer ·• Pistols, front,” when the occupation of  the men is such as to make this la  t mentioned position more desirabl e.

‘Yhen the cut1a s i:)  no t worn, the bolster will l’le on the left hip ; normally in

rear of  the hip  joint, bu t it m ay lle moved to the front a   before.

In an y  of   thee f our   poitions, the p;1·ip will   be  presented  to  the band con­ veniently, and in  any of  them the left  hand mar  be carried  to  the hol ster at the orde r, ” Pistol,” to stea dy it against the pull in drawin. in  case it has become

‘Vet from rain, or frow ha ving been oYerboanl, as iulanuing,





with  foresight filling notch  to top of  the frame.   “Fire.”  P ull trigger and  return to position. ”Pistol, draw.”

” ingle,  snap,   fire ! ”   As  before,   except  that   the  ob ject   will   be

poi ntetl at without.  running  the eye over  the sights.

” Double,  aim,  fire! ”   As  bef ore,  except that   the piece  will  not   be

brought to full cock.

” DoubJ e, snap, fire! ”     As bef ore, except  that  the sights will  not  be


When  cautionary orders, as  Round,   Two, Three, etc.,  are  given,  all chambers will  be emptied, or the  designated number of  shots   delivered

before coming  to the  position , ” Pistol, draw.”*

3. Cartridges, load !”       (One  time and  three motions. )

Fi rst motion.     Carry  the  left  han d in f ront  of  the body,  lef t  f orearm

pointing forty-fi ve degrees to the  right, and slightl y above the horizontal,

palm  of  the hand  u p.    Drop  the piece into it,  latch   up, cylindPr  i n the palm,  barrel  betwePn thumb and first  finger, muzzle forty- five degrees  to

the  left,  and  forty-five  degrees  below  the  h orizontal.   With  thumb of right   band   unlatch cylinder, and  with  second  and  third fingers of  left band  turn out cylinder,  pressing crane firmly back, first finger  resting on bar rel at joint  of  frawe, and  fourth finger  on hammer.   WiLh thumb of left hand  applied  to ejector-rod bead, slowly press rod home,  and  bold it in that   position while  any  fired  cartridge cases  that   have not  fallen  off are  brushed aside  by first  finger  of  right hand.     Allow  thumb of  lef t hand  to slip from  rod  head  and rest  on the  cylinder      Carry  right  h and to cartridge box and  loosen catch.t

Second  motion.  With the  thumb and  first  finger  of  the  right band take  a cartridge f rom  the  box  and  place it in an  empty  cham ber.   So continue till all chambers are loaded.   With  right hand  fasten cart ridge

box tiap and  grasp   grip  of  pistol, finger clear of  tri gger.    With  thumb of  left   hanct   press  cylinder   home.    Elevate   muzzle  forty-five  degrees a bove  the h orizontal.   Release  thumb  pressure, and  with second  and third   fingers  press  back  and  upward on cylinder, thus   rotating it  and testing security of  latching and  freedom of  rotation.

T bird motion .    Resume_position, “Pistol, draw.”

‘· Pack, load! ”t




· XOTE.-In pointing or aiming, the rip should be firmly but lightly grasped by the  last three finger;;;, and  the thumb, the fiT t joint of  this last pointing slightly down.  The shape of  the grip does not  lend itself to extending the  thumb, 11or to drnpping the  fourth finger un<ler the butt; nor  are , ncb  po  ition  used  by  the he-..t ]listol marlcm en.    Tbe pull upon the  trigger should be made with the   econd joint of  the firsr  finger, and  the  dil:ection of  the  111111  should be  directly to  the rear. ,….ery few hands wi111>e found to be so  mall that this cannot readily be done. The  eluow  should l)e bent, so that the  recoil  will  come  upon the  mu  cles,

:mcluot upon  the hracecl  bone   of  the arm.  A.t the  in  tant of  pulhng trigger, the grip of  the  hancl  and   the  muscles of  the  arm   should  be slightly tautened, to teady the  piece  a aiu t the  pull and the”fiip.”


t XO’l’E.-ln ”Cartridges, loacl,” the muzzle should be depres.etl ancl the ejector wm·ked  slowly  to  avoid throwing out unfired car tridges when ejecting.  In all cases, when   loalli_ng, th.e muzzle  should be  clepressed, or the cartridges may slip ont before the cylmrler 1  closed.


t NOTE.-In “Pack, l oad,” the muzzle  should be elevated in ejecting, so that the em t)ty cartridge ca  es will fall  clear.

‘ Vllen ejecting under an y ci:cumstances, the cylinde1· must be held fully open

-the crane must be  pressed finnly back-to allow  the head of  the case  nearest the  latch to pass by.

In withd rawing packs f rom  cartridge box,   eize  ring with thumb and   econd fin{!er, fir  t finger on plug- bead, and  turn pack  slight l y to free it in pack  hole.

In charging cylinder, do not  tu rn pack or in a n y waattempt to guide cartridge  .


218      fODERR A:lliERIOA1V  P ISTULS AJitD  RE VOLV.ER.’::-‘.



Same,  except:

First motion.   Drop  piece  into  left hand   with   t.he  muzzle for ty-five d egrees above horizontal, and  in ejecting press rod head  home smartly;

then drop  muzzle  to loading position in “Cartridges, load.”

Second  motion.     With  thumb and second  finger of  right   hand   take  a.

pack  from  the  box, first finger on plug  head. Place  plug  point  in latch seat  in  ejector, lift  first  finger from   plug  head,  and  press on pack  ring

with thumb and second  finger.    Then  proceed  as in  ” Cartridges, load.”

4.  “Return  pistol! ”    (One  time   and   two   motions.)  “Return!”

Drop the  muzzle  and enter it in the holster.

” Pistol! ,    Thrust it home,  and  fasten flap.





The  above  manual  is  for  right-hand work,   but  when  charging the enemy’s boarders, or when  boa1·ding, where  the bands do not have to be used  in climbing, the  revolver  will be used in the  left  hand, the cutlass in the  right, as follows:-

“Sword  and   pistol,   d raw, charge!”    At   the    preparatory  order, ” Sword  and  pistol,” carry  the  right   band   to cutlass hilt,  and  the  left hand  behind  the  back  to revolver  grip,  and  loosen  the  arms in scabbard and  holster.

At  the  order,  “Draw,” draw  both  cutlass and   revolver,  bringing the first  to  the  position   supp01·t, diagonally across  the  body,  edge  to  the front,  point   opposite   and   near  the  left  shoulder,  and  the   second  to the position  “Left hand, aim,” arm  nearly  extended to the front, elbow slightly bent,  finger  on  the  trigger.   At  the  orrl f’r, •• Charge!” empt.y the  chambers,  on  a  run,  and  close  with  the  cutlass.   Firing with   the

l eft  band  to be alays  double  snap,  although tile double  pull of  eleven pounds and  the  a’-vkwarclnes  due  to  u ing  the  left  hand, will  always make such  firing  wild, it will  be  found   that, with  very little, men  can deliver  the six shots,  when closing  on a run from  forty  yards  to five yards,  and  get  them  home  uet -reen  the  neck  and  knees  as regards elevation, and  with  a dispersion Jat era11y of  ten feet.

The  empty  revolver may be used  to  parry  a cut  at  the  head, leaving the  cutlass free to deliver  a t hrust in tit·J’ce.

In  case of  a check,  or other  cause, giving  time  to reload,  the  revolvers are  reloaded at the order  “Pack, load.”

At  this  order,  drop   the cutlass hilt,  allowing the  weapon  to  hang  by the  lanyard   from  the  right wrist,  chan ge the  revolYer grip  to  the  right hand, and   proceed  as  per  manual.   When   loaded,  change revolver  to left  hand  and  resume  position, ‘ Sword and  pistol , draw.”

When, for  lack  of  more  effective  arms, it  becomes  necessary to  use revolvers at  long  range, a  considerable effect  up  to  120  yards  can  be gotten from  them  by using  volleys  delivered over  the left arm  as a rest, as follows:-                          1

” Left  arm  rest, single aim, :fire! ”    At  the  order,  “Left arm  rest,’

grasp  the  right  forearm near  the elbow  with   the left  hand, and  make  a half  face to the  right.



Enter 11lug tit in latch seat and  press straight down on ring, relie\’ing pressure of flr  t finger on plng heatl  at same time.                                                                                                                         •

To  (‘/t(( rrte Packs.-Place six  ca.rtridges in  holes in  })ack cbargi11g  block.         En­

close cartridge beads witb  pack ring.   En ter  plucr  1>etweer1 cart ri<lcre   through hole in  ring.  Press plug  g-entl, to  push cartridge t:heads to scat , anR then   push

plng 11ome with  ball of  palm  of  hanct.





” …. :ngle!”      Full cock  the  piece.

”Aim! ”     Drop the   right hand into holl ow  of  lef t  arm,  with   joint

between cylinder and  barrel outside of elbow,  raise  the  left  arm, and  aim

with full  sights.

“Fire P’    Pull the  trigger, steadying the  piece  with  grasp of left  band

on  right forearm.

The revolver is sighted, full, f or  twenty yards. but  the “flip” counter­

balances the  cur\”e of  trajectory up to 120  yards.      Inside of  twenty-five

yards the  shoflting will  be slightly high.

The double pull, being  heavy and  “creepy,” is  not   well’ adapted to

aimed fire.

The siugle pull  of  from six   to  eight  pounds ma-y be  lightened  by

slacking tbe  strain screw, w hen  nice  target work is wanted.       Wjth the

strain  sc rew  slackened  off,  the   mainspring  will   still  have   sufficient resilience for  firi ng  on  the  single, but  it will  not   be sure on  the  double




Dl  10UTIN G             AXD   .A.S E LIX(}   COLT            DOUBLE-ACTION  NAVY REVOLVER .

Turn srock     crew  panly outand press  on screw  to loosen  half  stocks

and  ri>u.oYe ihe  e last.

Turn ont cap  ‘crewstap guard and  frame with  screw-drh·er handle to

]of’  en cap,  and  remoYe cap.

lip out  hand  and. spring.

Pas     wrench handle  between frame and   mainspring, with   neck   of

ha thlle   c1.t    cu n·e of   frame  under  swell,   width of   handle  forward  of

curTe.   an,l   bv  twisting  wrench cam   spring  down   till   stirrup can  be thrown o1f .                            Slip  main pring out.

Draw  hammf’r off  pin .

·with widest   pa.rt of  wrench handle applied at  cut·ve of  frame under swell,  cam  clown rebound spring and  slip rebound lever  off  pin .  Draw trigger off   pin.     YfiLh  large   drift, drh-e out   rebound  spring  pin  and rem ove spring.

Turn out  crane-lock screw, and remove lock.

Grasp crane at fiat  and   draw it  forward, thus  compre sing  ejector spring.   Turn cylinder till   any  flute indexes with  crane joint on frame,

and  remove cylinder and  crane.

Press latch fully  back, and, with small  drift applied t hrough hole in

latch, pu- h out  latch-spring pin.      Remo”Ve latch and  spring.

With  l arge  drif t,  Jrive out  strut pin,   and   remove strut  and   spring

f rom  llammer.    ‘Vitb small  drift, push out stirrup pin.

With  huge drift. turn off  ejector rod  bead, anJ with   ejector wrench, turn ofi ejector-lf{!t ltand  thread and remove cylinder.

With cranP-nnc w rench, turn out  crane nuts l ef t-hand  threadand remove ejector roll and spring.

The barrel will not  be unscrewed from the frame, nor  pins  driven out, other than  those before mentioned, unless to  replace broken  hammer pi n.

To assem,l.Jle. Proceed  in the  reverse order, except,

1.   After screwing on the  ejector, until  the  guide pin indexes with  its bole, with the  set,  lightl y set  out  the  end of  the  rod.

When  replacing a  broken ejector rod,  screw the  ejector down to  the sh oulder, then back  off  til)  the guide pin  indexes properly, and  use  the set as before.










2.    To  assemble  the  latch  in the  /Tmne.-Seat  the   latch   with   its spring in place.    Then, with   the  large  end  of  the  large  drift, compress the spring, pushing on the small  end  with  the  thumb of  the  left  band, and  holding the  latch   in  place   with   the  forefinger of  the  same  hand applied  to  the cylindrical part.

With   the  right hand  enter the  latch-spring pin in  the  hole from  the cap side of  the frame, and  push  it home, working it over the  last  coil of the  spring, and  at  the  same  time  releasing, gradually, the  pressure on the d rift.

3.    See  that  the  guide   pin  in  cap  is  to  rear  of  handspring  before pushing cap forward to place.

4.    In assembling, place  crane-lock screw  head  in  slot  in  lock  and enter both  togetherthen turn screw  home.        In  this  way the  grasp  of the  lock  on  crane is insured.   Be  sure  the  crane lock  enters its  slot, which  will  be  known by heads  of  lock  and  screw  coming nearly  flush with  frame when  set  up.

Ejector rod is of  best  Stubbs steel,  unternper d.    It will  spring some and  may  be set  by abuse.    In case  rod  is  bent,  place  pistol  on  bench, right  side  down,  and  with  cylinder turned  out.    Hold crane back  with

left  hand  and  revolve cylinder  with  right, noting the  throw oui  of  rod lwad.    Turn rod  head  till  the  throw  is up,  and  tap  it with  screw-driver handle.   Revolve   again   to   test   alignment.   So   proceed    till   rod   is straightened.

The  screw-driver handle has  been  designed for  use as a mallet  in all work  about   the  revolver.   Hold  it by the  neck  and  deliver   blow with butt  end.    Never  bold  l>y the  blade and  drive  with  side of  handle.



RE fARKS     OX     MA111PULATION        OF     COLT      DOUELE-.A.CTIOX   NAVY



“\Vhen the  hammer is rebounded, it is positively locked  back, and  can­ not fall  till the trigger  be pulled  or the  m echanism broken, and  therefore it is always safe  as long  as the  finger  is kept  off  the  trigger.

If the  trigger   be  tried  when  the  cylinder is  turned out,  or  if tmder the  same  conditions the  attempt  to  full  cock  the  piece  be  made,  the resistance of  the  safety  nib  of  the  trigger   upon  the  crane end  will   be felt; and  if  now  either trigger  or  hammer be forced,  the  nib  will  cut into   the  crane  end  and  raise  a  burr  which  will  disable  the  arm,  or  at least  make the double  pull  heavy.     The  pistol  cannot be fired tmtil  the cylinder is latched home,  because  only then can the  primer   of  the  car­ tridge  come  into  the  plane  of  the  hammer stroke;  but  by forcing the safety  nib  to shear   into  the slot  in  the  crane end,  the  hammer may  be made  to  rise  and  fall.     A  heayy  double  pull,  then,   indicates that   the cylinder is not latched.

Latching the cylinder must   be insisted  upon,  and  the  men instructed

to  close  it  smartly with  the  thumb of   the  h·ft  hand, and   to  test  the latching by  pressing  back  witli  the  fingers  of  the  same  hand, with  an

upward   rolling  push,   which  rotates the  cy linder  and   giTes  assurance that it ls clear  and  ready  for work.

If the cylinder be not  latched, the  pressure of  the  fingers  will  turn it out,  and,  if  it had  been  closed  smartly, the  non-latching will  indicate dirt  or other obstruction between the  flat  of  the  crane  and  t.he frame,

which  must  be brushed out  by the  finger.

The  rotating of  tlle cylinder  is alloweu  by this  mechanism, which  has

no cylinder bolt, since  the  hand   positively  brings  the  chambers to  the





firing  posi tion in  succession, and  entirely overcome     the  “overthrow” so objectionable in the single-acting revolvers.

The  good   feature   of  a  freely rotating, no-bolt   cylinder   are  partly

counterbalanced by this  minor  defPct;   the cylinder mu  t be f ully loaded

before  the  weapon  is returned to the  bolster to insure a fire at  the first

pull  of  the  trigger, since  one  of  the  unloaded chambers mi ht  be first brought to the firing position by the  action of  the  mechanism.

When   the  arms  ha \e been  loaded  f or  a  long   time,  and   carded in heavy  ra.ius, o1· in excessively dllsty  places,  the  1atchPs should  be s-prung back   a f ew times  to  test  their   condition, and  the  ln.Lching in  and  free rotation of  the cylinder  tested, as above.

” Then 1i rst using  tile double  pull,  it is the tendency  of  a person  accus­ tomed   to  single-action pistols   to  release  too  slowly  and  to  pull  again  before  the tri gger has llad its full forward  mo vement ; and when attempt­ ing   to  fire   very  quickly on   the   double   pull.  the  novice  will   almost  invariably make  his pull so short-though not  qui ck-that  the hammer will not  always  be lifted .

Men should   be thoroughly practiced at  t he double  pulls with  the  arm

in  either   hand, and  should   be  made  to  nnder  tanu   that if  from  any

cause  the double  action  fail,  there is still  the  single to fall  back on.

The  si ngle pull is established at six  to eight  pounds, and the  double at nin e to eleven  pounds.

The sighting is for  twenty  yards,  with  front sight  filling  to the  top of the  notch.   The same    ighting holds  good  up   to  eighty  yards,   above which  a little increase of elevation will be needed  up to l:lO yards.    The revolve rs will shoot  slightly high  inside  of  t wenty yards.

As wit.h all  revolvers,  after  long  continued firing,  the fouling should be wiped  from  the face of  the cylinder to prevent clogging  of  the joint bet ween cylinder and  barrel.

In  handling this  arm,  one  axiom   should   be  borne  in  n1ind -no re­

volver  bas yet  been  made which  does not  reqnire  a  littl e intelligence in

manipulatiug, if  it is  to  be depended upon;  and  on  drill,  strict  obedi­

ence to these four  rules should be insisted  upon:-

1. Never touch  the hamn1er or trigger  when the a.rm is not  pointed up

or at  the object.

2.  Never  touch  the  hammer or trigger  when  the cylinder  is unlatched.

3. After  closing  the cylinder, always  test  the latching and  rotating.

4.  NevPr force  the hammer or trigger.





Use onl y good sperm  oil f)r lubricating; if  othet·oil  be tHed in clean­

ing, see that it is carefully wiped off  from  all parts.

Keep   the   laLch es  free   from  rust   under  the   thumb-piece.  It will

rarely   be nPcessary  to  dismount the  latch to  do  this.     Spri ng  it  fully

badr, clean  the spot  on the  frame  normall y covered  by the  tbnmb-piece,

and oil well ;  then  work the a few times.

Do  not  dismount the  crane  from   the  cylinder   unl ess  very  rusty, as unscrewing the E:jector should  be avoldecl.    \tVitll the crane  and cylinder

dismounted from  the frame, press  the  crane  arm  out  of  the cylinder by compressing the  ejector spring, clean  and oil.    Proceed in like manner with  e jector   rod.    If, after this,   there  is evidence  of  internal rust or dirt,  it is time  to t urn  off ejector  and  dismount entirel y.

In  eli mounting crane  anll cylinder from  f rame,  slack,  but  do not turn out  crane-lock screw.





If  double pull is heavy,  examine end of  crane for burrs thrown up by safety  nib of  trigger, when  the arm  has been abused.

If   burrs  are  found, remove   them  with   smooth  file.   To   test  free working of   trigger, hand  and  rebound lever,  pull  off at  double  pull; then let the  trigger move forward  slowly and  pull  back again  before  heel of   trigger engages hammer strut.    If   a  rub   is  felt,  remove  cap   an<l

examine the three parts  mentioned .     To  test  free  working of  hammer

and  strength of  mainspring, hold  trigger   back  and  work  hammer with


K eep rebound lever clean  and free from  rust,  especially where end  of

rebound spring bears.       The strain screws  are seto just  bear  on main­

springs;  if  these  last  set  by continual snapping on drill,  give the strain

screws  a  turn.  It would   be  well   to  slack   off  strain screws  clear   of

mainsprings – one   turn  back  will  do  it – when   the   arms  are   to   be snapped  much on drill.

In assembling the latch in the frame, a littl e practicP  will be necessary in  order  to enter the  pin  readily.     Follow  t lle  directions closely.    Use

the  handle of  the  screw  driver-butt end- as a  mallet   in  loosening

cap,  etc., and,  in general, wherever  it  can be used as such.   In the field,

the  wrench handle can be used as a hammer for  the drifts.

In using   the  wrench, as  such,   remember that  the   threads  of   the

ejector  and  crane  nut  are  both  left  banded, and  that they  are light, and

can  be 1eadily  stripped.












‘l’he   f ollo·wing  rules governing re\olver practice in   the

:1\Ict::>cachuset.ts  Volunteer  l\1ilitia  ‘-vere i8sued   by  Colonel

George J._i ,. Hall, inspector general of rifle  pr tctice  in 1894.




Officers and non-commissioned staff officers of organizations armed  with the  revol ver, and  any  otlter  officers and  non-commissioned staff  officers owning the  regulation army  revolver, will qualify as follows:-

First  Class : two  scores  of  twenty-eight out  of  a  possible  thirty, at fifty yards.

Second  Class : two  scores  of  twenty-five out  of  a  possible  thirty, at

.fifty yards.

The  target shall  be  that   used  for  rifle  shooting at  200  yards.    Each

score must  be shot  in one  minute, or  less, and  must   be approved by an


Position ;  arm extended, elbow  free  from  body.     Amml.lnition,   any;

mi11imnm trigger   pull,  four   pounds.      Competitors furnish  their   own

















This  cut  illustrates the  Winchester, Model 1892,  “Take-Down” Rifle.

The  Model 1886  rifle  will  soon be made  in the  same form•

·•·In  this  space   we  cannot  mention, in  detail,   the many  kinds   of  Arms,





m ade    by us.      \\7 e \vill, ho,vever,  mail  our    illustrated catalogu e to any  part  of   the  world, vvhen asked.

i\ll   our  guns  are  proved    and    inspected,    and  all

our  sporting    rifles  are  tested    at    target.

Our   Amtnunition is  tested   in  process of  manu­ facture  and   \vhen   finished,  by   a  special  corps   of experts,   and   is  surpassed by  no  other   make.

We are prepared to answer all correspondence promptly.   Commen dations are  received  \vith thanks. Complaints comn1and  instant  attention.


—   .-  –





NEW    HAVEN,    CONN.,     U.  S.  A.


STORES : f San  Francisco,  Cal. l New York, N.   Y.






























Greatest    Accuracy,                 Perfection    of  Fonn, Beauty   of               Finish,                    Unsurpassed   Strength,

and  many  other desirable points are conspicuous in the

Smith  &  Wesson  Revolver.







These Famous Revolvers

are  manufactured of the  best  material, in        various         calibers,   with              differentlength of  barrel.       They  are   suited  for   all   purposes, possessing great strength, wearing qualities, and  the  finest finish.

Th ey are  the  chosen arm of  the  best  professional and amateur revolver shots w ho have, during  the   past few  years, surpassed all   previous per­ formances with revolvers.

The .32·44 and   .38·44, in   the  Russian Army :Model  frame, are   the chosen arm  of  marksmen desi ring a lighter charge and  an  almost imper­ ceptible recoil.   The Russian Model .44,  .32-44 and   .38-44 are  fitted with  rear elevating sights and  wind-gauge when desired .



Tile Officers of the  National  Guard  of different States are rapidly equippiag themselves with  Smith  & Wesson

.44-cal. A.rmy Revolvers.



SMITH  & WESSON, Springfield, Mass., U.S. A.








l’\’lADE   BY







We  guarantee the  followi ng  Arn1s ‘vhen   used  \vith U .  l\1.   C.   Ammu nition:- Colt,     Winchester, Marlin,       Bullard,   Whi tney,   Stnith  &   Wesson, Ballard,  Stevens,  Remington, and  all  others of first-class   manufacture.










Many    of    the     Man ufacturers     of    Fire     .:\rms     ‘vill guarantee              their   arn1s only           \vhen    U. M. C. Ammunition     is                    used.



TRADE       U.M.C.        MARK






Factory :   Bridgeport,   Conn., U. S.  A.


‘* 1836=====1893·


American    Powder    Mills,


223   STATE    ST.,     BOSTON .




Gunpo’Wder    Manufacturers












1 0£AO   SHOT”   or   II RIFLE CARTRI DGE ,,





SEND     FOR     IT.







DEVOTED TO  Rifle,Gun and Rod. S3.50 A  YEAR.


A Practical   Paper


Practical Sportsmen.


of  trap shoot::., :and contrib­

uted  articles from the

brightest writers  in

the  countrY·

Ask  your dealer for it, or

rt  ii’:IDdrop  a  postal    fOT   sample


;K               F1:)4J._,(.,,  Nnw Yoa ,





… ..    . . .  ..   IW II •I  -•e


American Wild Flower-..          By  Prof.

G.  A.  Goodale.       51 lflne  colored plates, smnll4to                     Sl.50


Fern” of  Nort h America.   By Prof.

D. c.Eaton.  81 Colored plates of all

the species, 2 vola.small4to net, $35.00

The price to l>e nc.l \’nncecl ncopie’

become sea rce r.


Sport; or, Fishing a1Hl  Shooting.

By  A. c. Goultl, witll 15  magniil –

ceoL colorell plate.o:, uet                     ;:-;;o.oo


.Modern A111erican  Rifte .  Dy  A. 0.

Goultl.    Fully   llluotr;.ttell.    12m<‘..

cloth   .                                       •     $00






18  Arch Street,   –   Boston,  ttss.


Colt’s    Revolvers






Adopted b)’ the  TVar and 1\av;’  Departments of  the  [/ttited States.












CO LT’S  ARMY      t’tisjio

MODEL 1892.

38 &41  CALIBRES.




-…,……,_ ._..






Siogle   nd Double  Action R volvers




In  all  Calibr s.                                         ,






















New Double-Action     Pocket Revolve!


Jointless, Solid Frame, with  Simultaneous Ejection.








HARTFORD,      CO N.,      U . S.  A.



 POIIITERS”  GIVER  AWAYTo all   who  are   lovers of   the   Rifle, Pistol , or  Shotgun , or  who   take pleasure  i n   hunting  and   d esire to   Economize by  mak ing  their  own Ammunition , we   will      se n d   a  copy  of  “The Ideal   Hand   Book” of useful i nfor matiQ n  to  Shooters, FREE.      Th i s  book  will  tell  yo u w h at powder i s  best  adapted  to  the different calibers, what  shells to buy, and how  to  p rese rve  them; how  to  make  your own  bullets, what alloy to  use; how  to  use  you r  molds to get  t he best  results; how  to prepare your own ammunition  t hat  will   be  cheaper a nd  more reliable than  facto ry  car­ tridges.       The  book   co n ta ins   va lua b le   tables  gi v i ng   the   twists of                    t he rifting  i n  all  a r ms as  now  made   by  the  various ar ms manufacturers, also gi ves   the   names  o f                all   cart rid ges,  thei r  cali bers 1     weight of   powder , weight of  bu llets,  their composi tion, a nd  co rrect d iameters.                            Table show­ ing t hei r measu re men ts in  thou sand t hs  of   a n  i nch , an d  what arms they ca n  be  used   in;  ta ble  red ucing Drachms  to   G rains, showin g  powder measuremen t  for  Rifles a nd  Shot Gun s w it h N-itro and  Black Powders , also   how   ma n y  shells of  all  the  various cali be rs ca n be loaded with o ne pound of  powder, the sam e wit h sh ot ;  h ow  to  find   out   the   twist   in  any riftbarrel , e tc.                     It also  contains a f u lly  i llust rated   descr i ptive   price list of  all   t h e  Ideal   Cartridge  Reloading Tools, and   much other  useful

i n formation  to  Shooters.




To his  own interest who  dea ls in  Arms and  Ammunition, or  \vho  shoots a Rifle,  Pistol , or  Shotgun, and   has  not  the



It is  a  recogn i zetl  authority on   matters pertaining to  Arms and  Ammu­ nition.     No  Dealer or  Shooter should be without it.     It contains seventy pages  of   solid  inf0rma1 ion   gleaned through  25 Years’  Experience.

.:\o  charge for  the  PorxTERS it contai nl’, sti ll stamps fo r postage will  not

provoke  us.      ‘Ve   will  send   it  to  any   pnrt  of  the   world on   receipt  of request.    Be  alive and  send  for  one.   Address,






N. B.      We  shall appreciate it i f  you  mention th is book  when you  w rite.








‘J!IE Pistol  Record  of America  was established and h as been  held  by Stevens  Pistols ; nearly all thein1porrant scores  have  been  m ad e with  these   arms. Stevens Pistols are   used  by th e  best   professional a nd amateur shots.   Made in all calibers, chat11bered and rifled for the  best cartridges, in suring  the  great­ est  known  accuracy with power  and  safety.






ACCURATE.                   poRTABLE.                       








are  used  by Hunters, Anglers, Bicycli sts, Tourists, Ex­plorers,  and  all desiring extreme   accuracy with  kill i ng power, in the  most compact space.









The  small  bore rifles produced by this company  have revolutionized r i fle shooting.


Send  for a catalogue and circular.

J.!’ree to any part of the world .


Address,    THE  J. STEVENS  ARMS  & TOOL CO.,


Chicopee Falls, Mass.,  U. S. A.






The en graved plates we  make a re engraved by  m eans of  photograp h ic and chem ical  p rocesses on ei ther  cop per or  z inc, a nd while in  all  printin g qua lities, such   as  smooth ness   of  su rface,  sharp ness, and  depth of   lin e, they a re fully  equal to wood  cuts,  th ey are in  cases where an exact repro­ duction of  the  origi nal  is desired , very  much superio r  to  them , and   cost abou t  one  half  the   p rice  of  t he  sam e quality of  work   don e  on  wood. The plates can  be  pri nted   by  any  type prin ter  on  the  com m on   pri nting press, the same as any wood  cu t.

HALp T0NE.   This p rocess is su itable for  the  fi n est  class  of

                                                       work .   The  plates  are  en graved  on   solid

copper, and  are made d£rect   from, photographs or wash drqw£ngs, or any­ thin[[  that will phototf ·raph , and  are  m u ch  fin er  than anyth i ng  engraved on  wood.



LI N E  ENGRAVI NG i n  effect  appears  the  same as  wood

                                                                      engraving, the   drawings are   copied

by 011r artists  from photographs or  from  the  object i tself,  or  rep rod uced direct from   the  printed copy  se n t  us.    The plates are   made of  zi nc, and are  suitable for  all  grades of  printi ng, from the  finest catalogue wor k to the  coarsest newspaper work.      Nea rly  all   the  cuts in  this  work \Yere made by  this  process.

Send stamp for specimen sheet.



275 Washington Street,  Boston.





Illustrated Guide  Books  to  Winter

Resorts in  the West Indies.


STARK’S GUIDES to the  \Vest Indies ar.e admitted to be the  best  published .  They are  profusely illustrated  in the  h;ghest style of  the  art   with  photo-prints and  maps. The author thoroughly canvassed these islands for  material for  his  guide books, and nothing is omitted or overlooked which the  invalid, or  traveler f or  pleasure, will wish to know.

Stark’s  History and Guide to Bermud a                                                   Price, $1.50 ”          ”          ”                ”           ” the Bahamas                                                                 ”         2.00

“‘                           ”                       14                     ”               ” Barbados an<l  tbe Caribbees Islan ds             2.0()

For sale by the  Photo Elect rotype Co., 275  Washington St., Boston; Brentano B ros.,  Union

Square, New  York; and  at all  of  Cook’s Ticket Agencies.



Gallery p.u  Target Pistol.





The Wurfflein    Single=Shot


Breech=Loading Target=Pistol


is  const ruct ed on t he Tip- Up  Bar rel System,


the Quick est and  Ha ndiest Syst em  in  use.


It possesses the folloc.viNg joints of  merit over o.thrrs :–

Autolnat ic rebomulinhan1mer, whereby the  trouble of  half -cocking, the  risk  of  breakin:; the  firing }lin, defacing the  breech   of  barrel, or  acci­



dentally discharging the Ph>to1
is avoided, as the hammer is never ret ing on


the firing pin, or at  full cock, but always at safety.

New, impt·oved,  patented, simple, strong, convenient, and  easy mani pu­ lated  tO)) action, which  is  drawn  back like:: a hammer to open  the Pistol. It wtll be seen  at a glance that  this  is the  most complete, quickest, and  han<lie ·t action in  the market.

Imtn•oved hinge }>oin t, which is so constructed that  it is impossible

to pinch the hand  in 011e ning the  Pistol, as is the ca5e \\ ith other Tip-UJl barrel  Pistols.

Patented,  automatic,  positive, strong,  simple Shell    Extractor,   \\hich returns to  its  place,  giving a  flat breech to  more  convemently insert the cartridge.

Convtnieut detachable barrd  Hinge Pin, whereby the  ba rrel  can  be de­

tached in a few seconds \dthout screw driver.

This  Pistol is   u.nsorpassed for  simplicity of  consu uction, strength, and  dura bilily, every   part   being  of  the  best  matenal; t he barrel is of  fine steel, carefully  bored and   ri1led with  the  most improved machinery.

Every  Pistol being   tested and  sighted . and   warrantt:d  to  shoot equal  to the best in the market. It is also·made  to use barrels of different calibers of  Rim  or Center fire  to same  frame and  action, thus  giving ona number of  different ba rrels to one  stock.

1< or safety and  S})ee<l in loading and  clean·

ing, effectiven.e·•  and   accuracy, it  has  no superiot·.   It sta nds fot·ewo  t as to  symmet· , rical model, style, and  beaut y of  workmanship.

Ask  to see  the  t.  W urfflein Pitol,” and  do

not  be put  off  by your  dealer u ntil you  have  seen  it

and  become  convinced of  the above facts.

It  has  no  equal …            ·•·WM. WURFFLEIN,   Patentee  and  Manufacturer,

208 North  Second St., Philadelpbia, Penn., U. S. A.








•’- H IIt llt lll flll lt ii JI  II  U  II IfUI. ,, ·


Lyman’s Patent Ivory

Shot Gun  Sights.


A New System of  Sighting



Shot Gu ns.




Lyman’s Patent



Wind-gauge Sight.

PR tCE, $5.00.


The   Windage  mechanism of   this ight is very  sim ple.   Used  Without the  large disk,  the   principle ot  this sight is the sa me as  the  Combination sight.



Lyman’s Patent Combination Rear  Sight. Prie ot this a lgbt, $3. 00.


These sights more  than  double the value of  a rUle, either for  hunting ot·

target  shooting, for         instan taneous

nim  can be taken  with  great accuracy.           UEDUClm CUT.








Ivory Bead Front Sight.                             Ivory  Hunting Front Sight.







These sights can  ue seen  d is­ tinctly against  any  object  in the wootls or In the bright sunlight.

Prire, $1.00.                                                                                   Priee. :.o ch.






Lyman’s Patent Ivory  Combination Front Sight.

This  i.; an excellent sight for “all around”

u e .

The  cuts show the   011en  ivol’r  aml  the   …-…,., >:–a;-..

shntled  glohe.

PRICE, $1.00.



Lyman’s  Patent

Ivory   Revolver Sight.


Tbis  is a great improvem ent  over auy  re’olver sight now in use.    It is n tl aptetl to nll  revolvers having their sights  ptnnecl in  the  rtb aboYe  the hU r·!el.        f’ RICI, 50 CF.NTS.


Address,   WM. LYMAN, Middlefield, Conn., U.S. A.




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